Berlin Palace

Berlin Palace
Berlin Stadtschloss 1920er.jpg
The Stadtschloss in the 1920s
Berlin Palace is located in Berlin
Berlin Palace
Location within Berlin
General information
Architectural styleBaroque
LocationMitte, Berlin, Germany
Construction started1443 (original)
2013 (reconstruction)
Completed1845 (original)
2019 (reconstruction)
Demolishedheavily damaged by Allied bombing in 1945; demolished by GDR in 1950
ClientJoachim II Hector, Elector of Brandenburg, John George, Elector of Brandenburg, John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, Frederick Wilhelm I of Prussia, Frederick the Great, Frederick William III of Prussia, Frederick William IV of Prussia, Wilhelm I, German Emperor, Friedrich III, German Emperor, Wilhelm II, German Emperor
Design and construction
ArchitectAndreas Schlüter, Karl Friedrich Schinkel
The Berliner Stadtschloss (or Stadtschloß) in a 19th-century painting

The Berlin Palace (German: Berliner Schloss or Stadtschloss), also known as the Berlin City Palace, is a building in the centre of Berlin, located on the Museum Island at Schlossplatz, opposite the Lustgarten park. It was a royal and imperial palace and served mostly as the main residence of the Electors of Brandenburg, the Kings of Prussia and the German Emperors.[1] Demolished by the government of the German Democratic Republic the 1950s, the palace is currently being rebuilt, with completion expected in 2018. The reconstructed palace will be the seat of the Humboldt Forum, a museum for world culture which is a successor museum of the Ancient Prussian Art Chamber, which was also located in the Berlin Palace. The Humboldt Forum has been described as the German equivalent of the British Museum.[2]

The palace was originally built in the 15th century and changed throughout the next few centuries. It bore features of the Baroque style, and its shape, finalised by the middle 18th century, is for the most part attributed to German architect Andreas Schlüter, whose first design is likely to date from 1702, though the palace incorporated earlier parts seen in 1688 by Nicodemus Tessin. It served as a residence to various Electors of Brandenburg. It was the principal residence and winter residence of the Hohenzollern Kings of Prussia from 1701 to 1918. After the unification of Germany in 1871, it also became the central residence for the German Emperors. After the proclamation of the Weimar Republic in 1918, the palace became a museum. In World War II, the building was heavily damaged by Allied bombings. Although it could have been repaired, the palace was demolished in 1950 by the German Democratic Republic authorities, despite criticism. In the 1970s, the Palace of the Republic was constructed on its site, but demolished in 2008 to make place for the reconstruction of the old palace.

Following the reunification of Germany, it was decided to rebuild the entire exterior of the palace in the original style except for the east side. The authentically reconstructed facades will include various remnant sculptures and rocks of the original palace. The interior will be modern, except the facades of one of the courts which is constructed in original style (Schlüterhof). However, the floorplan has been designed to allow potential future reconstruction of notable historical rooms. The building will house the Humboldtforum museum and congress complex, and is scheduled to be finished 14 September 2019.[3]

History up to 1871

The Prussian royal family receiving King August the Strong of Saxony and Poland at the Stadtschloss (1729)
Aerial view of the Stadtschloss, circa 1905-1925
The Stadtschloss with the National Memorial to emperor Wilhelm I, around 1900

The palace replaced an earlier fort or castle guarding the crossing of the Spree river at Cölln, a neighboring town which merged with Berlin in 1710. The castle stood on Fishers' Island, as the southern end of the Museum Island in the Spree is known. In 1443 Frederick II "Irontooth", Margrave and Prince Elector of Brandenburg, laid the foundations of Berlin's first fortification in a section of swampy wasteland north of Cölln. At the completion of the castle in 1451, Frederick moved there from the town of Brandenburg. The main role of the castle and its garrison in this period was to establish the authority of the Margraves over the unruly citizens of Berlin, who were reluctant to give up their medieval privileges to a monarchy. In 1415 King Sigismund had enfeoffed the Hohenzollern princes with Brandenburg, and they were now establishing their power and withdrawing electoral privileges which the cities had attained in the Brandenburg interregnum of 1319–1415.

The castle also included a chapel. In 1454 Frederick II, after having returned via Rome from his pilgrimage to Jerusalem, made the castle chapel a parish church, richly endowing it with relics and altars.[4] Pope Nicholas V ordered Stephan Bodecker, then Prince-Bishop of Brandenburg, to consecrate the Chapel to Erasmus of Formiae.[5]

On 7 April 1465, at Frederick's request, Pope Paul II attributed to St Erasmus Chapel a canon-law College named Stift zu Ehren Unserer Lieben Frauen, des heiligen Kreuzes, St. Petri und Pauli, St. Erasmi und St. Nicolai. This collegiate church became the nucleus of today's Evangelical Supreme Parish and Collegiate Church, adjoining the site of the castle.

In 1538, the Margrave Joachim II demolished the palace and engaged the master builder Caspar Theiss to build a new and grander building in the Italian Renaissance style. After the Thirty Years War (1618–1648), Frederick William (1620–1688), the "Great Elector", embellished the palace further. In 1688, Nicodemus Tessin designed courtyard arcades with massive columns in front. Not much is known about the alterations of 1690–1695, when Johann Nering was the court architect. Martin Grünberg continued the alterations in 1695–1699.

In 1699 the Elector Frederick III of Brandenburg (who took the title King in Prussia in 1701, becoming Frederick I), appointed the architect Andreas Schlüter to execute a "second plan" in the Italian manner. Schlüter's first design probably dates from 1702; he planned to rebuild the palace in the Protestant Baroque style. His overall concept in the shape of a regular cube enclosing a magnificently ornamented courtyard was retained by all the building directors who succeeded him. In 1706, Schlüter was replaced by Johann Friedrich Eosander von Göthe, who designed the western extension of the palace, doubling its size. In all essentials, Schlüter's balanced, rhythmic composition of the façades was retained, but Göthe moved the main entrance to the new west wing.

Frederick William I, who became king in 1713, was interested mainly in building up Prussia as a military power, and dismissed most of the craftsmen working on the Stadtschloss. As a result, Göthe's plan was only partly carried out. Nevertheless, the exterior of the palace had come close to its final form by the mid-18th century. The final stage was the erection of the dome in 1845, during the reign of Frederick William IV. The dome was built by Friedrich August Stüler after a design by Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Subsequent major works were limited to the interior, engaging the talents of Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff, Carl von Gontard and many others.

The Stadtschloss was at the centre of the Revolution of 1848 in Prussia. Huge crowds gathered outside the palace to present an "address to the king" containing their demands for a constitution, liberal reform and German unification. Frederick William emerged from the palace to accept their demands. On 18 March, a large demonstration outside the Stadtschloss led to bloodshed and the outbreak of street fighting. Frederick William later reneged on his promises and reimposed an autocratic regime. From that time onwards, many Berliners and other Germans came to see the Stadtschloss as a symbol of oppression and "Prussian militarism".

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