Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River (Saxon or Thuringian)
Saale, that once constituted, together with the River
Elbe (from their
confluence onwards), the eastern border of the
Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was primarily inhabited by
Germanic tribes like the
Franks and the
Saxons, the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by
Slavic tribes. This is why most of the cities and villages in northeastern Germany bear
Slavic-derived names (
Germania Slavica). Typical
Germanised place name
suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in,
prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch. The name Berlin has its roots in the language of
West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, and may be related to the Old
Polabian stem berl-/birl- ("swamp").
 Since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär (bear), a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city. It is therefore a
twelve boroughs, five bear a (partly) Slavic-derived name:
Pankow (the most populous),
Spandau (named Spandow until 1878). Of its ninety-six neighborhoods, twenty-two bear a (partly) Slavic-derived name:
Zehlendorf. The neighborhood of
Moabit bears a
French-derived name, and
Französisch Buchholz is named after the
12th to 16th centuries
The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from approximately 1192,
 and remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte.
 The first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century.
Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and
Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920.
 The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns.
Cölln on the
Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, and Berlin, across the
Spree in what is now called the
Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244.
 1237 is considered the founding date of the city.
 The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, and profited from the
staple right on the two important
Via Imperii and from
 In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated.
Frederick I became the
elector of the
Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440.
 During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, and subsequent members of the
Hohenzollern family ruled in Berlin until 1918, first as electors of Brandenburg, then as kings of Prussia, and eventually as
German emperors. In 1443,
Frederick II Irontooth started the construction of a new
royal palace in the twin city Berlin-Cölln. The protests of the town citizens against the building culminated in 1448, in the "Berlin Indignation" ("Berliner Unwille").
 This protest was not successful and the citizenry lost many of its political and economic privileges. After the royal palace was finished in 1451, it gradually came into use. From 1470, with the new elector
Albrecht III Achilles, Berlin-Cölln became the new royal residence.
 Officially, the Berlin-Cölln palace became permanent residence of the Brandenburg electors of the Hohenzollerns from 1486, when
John Cicero came to power.
 Berlin-Cölln, however, had to give up its status as a free
Hanseatic city. In 1539, the electors and the city officially became
17th to 19th centuries
Thirty Years' War between 1618 and 1648 devastated Berlin. One third of its houses were damaged or destroyed, and the city lost half of its population.
Frederick William, known as the "Great Elector", who had succeeded his father
George William as ruler in 1640, initiated a policy of promoting immigration and religious tolerance.
 With the
Edict of Potsdam in 1685, Frederick William offered asylum to the French
 By 1700, approximately 30 percent of Berlin's residents were French, because of the Huguenot immigration.
 Many other immigrants came from
Berlin became the capital of the
in 1871 and expanded rapidly in the following years. (Unter den Linden in 1900)
Since 1618, the Margraviate of Brandenburg had been in
personal union with the
Duchy of Prussia. In 1701, the dual state formed the
Kingdom of Prussia, as
Frederick III, Elector of Brandenburg, crowned himself as king
Frederick I in Prussia. Berlin became the capital of the new Kingdom,
Königsberg. This was a successful attempt to centralise the capital in the very far-flung state, and it was the first time the city began to grow. In 1709, Berlin merged with the four cities of Cölln, Friedrichswerder, Friedrichstadt and Dorotheenstadt under the name Berlin, "Haupt- und Residenzstadt Berlin".
In 1740, Frederick II, known as
Frederick the Great (1740–1786), came to power.
 Under the rule of Frederick II, Berlin became a center of
the Enlightenment, but also, was briefly occupied during the
Seven Years' War by the Russian army.
 Following France's victory in the
War of the Fourth Coalition,
Napoleon Bonaparte marched into Berlin in 1806, but granted self-government to the city.
 In 1815, the city became part of the new
Province of Brandenburg.
Industrial Revolution transformed Berlin during the 19th century; the city's economy and population expanded dramatically, and it became the main railway hub and economic centre of Germany. Additional suburbs soon developed and increased the area and population of Berlin. In 1861, neighbouring suburbs including
Moabit and several others were incorporated into Berlin.
 In 1871, Berlin became capital of the newly founded
 In 1881, it became a city district separate from Brandenburg.
20th to 21st centuries
In the early 20th century, Berlin had become a fertile ground for the
German Expressionist movement.
 In fields such as
cinema new forms of artistic styles were invented. At the end of the
First World War in 1918, a
republic was proclaimed by
Philipp Scheidemann at the
Reichstag building. In 1920, the
Greater Berlin Act incorporated dozens of suburban cities, villages and estates around Berlin into an expanded city. The act increased the area of Berlin from 66 to 883 km2 (25 to 341 sq mi). The population almost doubled and Berlin had a population of around four million. During the
Weimar era, Berlin underwent political unrest due to economic uncertainties, but also became a renowned centre of the
Roaring Twenties. The metropolis experienced its heyday as a major world capital and was known for its leadership roles in science, technology, arts, the humanities, city planning, film, higher education, government and industries.
Albert Einstein rose to public prominence during his years in Berlin, being awarded the
Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921.
Adolf Hitler and the
came to power. NSDAP rule diminished Berlin's Jewish community from 160,000 (one-third of all Jews in the country) to about 80,000 as a result of emigration between 1933 and 1939. After
Kristallnacht in 1938, thousands of the city's Jews were imprisoned in the nearby
Sachsenhausen concentration camp. Starting in early 1943, many were shipped to
death camps, such as
 Berlin is the most heavily bombed city in history. The Allies dropped 67,607.3 tons of bombs on the city during World War II, destroyed 6,427 acres of the built up area of the city. During World War II, large parts of Berlin were destroyed in
the 1943–45 air raids and during the
Battle of Berlin. Around 125,000 civilians were killed.
 After the
end of the war in Europe in May 1945, Berlin received large numbers of refugees from the Eastern provinces. The victorious powers divided the city into four sectors, analogous to the
occupation zones into which Germany was divided. The sectors of the
Western Allies (the United States, the United Kingdom and France) formed
West Berlin, while the
Soviet sector formed
(painted on the western side) was a barrier that divided the city from 1961 to 1989.
Allies shared administrative responsibilities for Berlin. However, in 1948, when the Western Allies extended the currency reform in the Western zones of Germany to the three western sectors of Berlin, the
Soviet Union imposed a
blockade on the access routes to and from West Berlin, which lay entirely inside Soviet-controlled territory. The
Berlin airlift, conducted by the three western Allies, overcame this blockade by supplying food and other supplies to the city from June 1948 to May 1949.
 In 1949, the Federal Republic of Germany was founded in
West Germany and eventually included all of the American, British and French zones, excluding those three countries' zones in Berlin, while the
German Democratic Republic was proclaimed in East Germany. West Berlin officially remained an occupied city, but it politically was aligned with the Federal Republic of Germany despite West Berlin's geographic isolation. Airline service to West Berlin was granted only to American, British and French airlines.
The founding of the two German states increased
Cold War tensions. West Berlin was surrounded by East German territory, and East Germany proclaimed the Eastern part as its capital, a move that was not recognised by the western powers. East Berlin included most of the historic centre of the city. The West German government established itself in
 In 1961, East Germany began the building of the
Berlin Wall between East and West Berlin, and events escalated to a tank standoff at
Checkpoint Charlie. West Berlin was now de facto a part of West Germany with a unique legal status, while East Berlin was de facto a part of East Germany.
John F. Kennedy gave his "
Ich bin ein Berliner" speech in 1963, underlining the US support for the Western part of the city. Berlin was completely divided. Although it was possible for Westerners to pass to the other side through strictly controlled checkpoints, for most Easterners travel to West Berlin or West Germany was prohibited by the government of East Germany. In 1971, a
Four-Power agreement guaranteed access to and from West Berlin by car or train through East Germany.
In 1989, with the end of the Cold War and pressure from the East German population, the Berlin Wall fell on 9 November and was subsequently mostly demolished. Today, the
East Side Gallery preserves a large portion of the wall. On 3 October 1990, the two parts of Germany were
reunified as the Federal Republic of Germany and Berlin again became the official German capital. In 1991, the German Parliament, the
voted to move the seat of the German capital from Bonn to Berlin, which was completed in 1999. On 18 June 1994, soldiers from the United States, France and Britain marched in a parade which was part of the ceremonies to mark the final withdrawal of foreign troops allowing a
Berlin's 2001 administrative reform merged several districts. The number of boroughs was reduced from 23 to 12.
In 2002, the German parliament voted to allow the
reconstruction of the
Berlin Palace, which started in 2013 and will be finished in 2019. In 2006, the
FIFA World Cup Final was held in Berlin.
2016 terrorist attack linked to
ISIL, a truck was deliberately driven into the Christmas market next to the
Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church, leaving 12 people dead and 56 others injured.