Bergamo

Bergamo
Comune
Città di Bergamo
The iconic skyline of the old fortified Upper City
The iconic skyline of the old fortified Upper City
Flag of Bergamo
Flag
Coat of arms of Bergamo
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Città dei Mille ("City of the Thousand")
Map of the old walled Upper City of Bergamo
Map of the old walled Upper City of Bergamo
Bergamo is located in Lombardy
Bergamo
Bergamo
Location of Bergamo in Lombardy
Bergamo is located in Italy
Bergamo
Bergamo
Bergamo (Italy)
Coordinates: 45°41′42″N 9°40′12″E / 45°41′42″N 9°40′12″E / 45.69500; 9.67000
CountryItaly
RegionLombardy
ProvinceProvince of Bergamo (BG)
Government
 • MayorGiorgio Gori (PD)
Area
 • Total40.16 km2 (15.51 sq mi)
Elevation249 m (817 ft)
Population (2018)
 • Total121,200
 • Density3,000/km2 (7,800/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Bergamasque
Bergamaschi (Italian)
Bergamàsch (Eastern Lombard)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code24100
Dialing code(+39) 035
Websitewww.comune.bergamo.it

Bergamo (Italian: [ˈbɛrɡamo] (About this sound listen); Lombard: Bèrghem [ˈbɛrɡɛm] (About this sound listen); from the proto-Germanic elements *berg +*heim, the "mountain home"[1][2]) is a city in the alpine Lombardy region of northern Italy, approximately 40 km (25 mi) northeast of Milan, and about 30 km (19 mi) from Switzerland, the alpine lakes Como and Iseo and 70 km (43 mi) from Garda and Maggiore. The Bergamo Alps (Alpi Orobie) begin immediately north of the city.

With a population of around 120,000, Bergamo is the fourth-largest city in Lombardy. Bergamo is the seat of the Province of Bergamo.The metropolitan area of Bergamo extends beyond the administrative city limits, spanning over a densely urbanized area with slightly less than 500,000 inhabitants.[3] The Bergamo metropolitan area is itself part of the broader Milan metropolitan area, home to over 8 million people.[4][5][6]

The city of Bergamo is composed of an old walled core, known as Città Alta ("Upper Town"), nestled within a system of hills, and the modern expansion in the plains below. The upper town is encircled by massive Venetian defensive systems that are a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 9 July 2017.[7]

Bergamo is well connected to several cities in Italy, thanks to the motorway A4 stretching on the axis between Milan, Verona, and Venice. The city is served by Il Caravaggio International Airport, the third-busiest airport in Italy with 12.3 million passengers in 2017. Bergamo is the second most visited city in Lombardy after Milan.[8][9]

The Città Alta

History

Fortified Upper City of Bergamo
Native name Città Alta di Bergamo
Panoramica Bergamo Alta - panoramio.jpg
Bergamo Upper City skyline
Location Bergamo, Natural Park of Bergamo Hills  Lombardy  Italy
Area Bergamo, Lombardy, Northern Italy
Type Cultural
Criteria iii, iv
Designated 2017 (41 Session)
Part of Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – western Stato da Mar
Reference no.1533
Region Europe and North America

Antiquity

Bergamo occupies the site of the ancient town of Bergomum, founded as a settlement of the Celtic tribe of Cenomani. In 49 BC it became a Roman municipality, containing c. 10,000 inhabitants at its peak. An important hub on the military road between Friuli and Raetia, it was destroyed by Attila in the 5th century.

Middle Ages

From the 6th century Bergamo was the seat of one of the most important Lombard duchies of northern Italy, together with Brescia, Trento, and Cividale del Friuli: its first Lombard duke was Wallaris.

After the conquest of the Lombard Kingdom by Charlemagne, it became the seat of a county under one Auteramus (d. 816). An important Lombardic hoard dating from the 6th to 7th centuries was found in the vicinity of the city in the 19th century and is now in the British Museum.[10]

From the 11th century onwards, Bergamo was an independent commune, taking part in the Lombard League which defeated Frederick I Barbarossa in 1165. The local Guelph and Ghibelline factions were the Colleoni and Suardi, respectively.

Feuding between the two initially caused the family of Omodeo Tasso to flee north c. 1250, but he returned to Bergamo in the later 13th century to organize the city's couriers: this would eventually lead to the Imperial Thurn und Taxis dynasty generally credited with organizing the first modern postal service.

Early modern

After a short period under the House of Malatesta starting from 1407, Bergamo was ceded in 1428 by the Duchy of Milan to the Republic of Venice in the context of the Wars in Lombardy and the aftermath of the 1427 Battle of Maclodio.

Despite the brief interlude granted by the Treaty of Lodi in 1454, the uneasy balance of power among the Northern Italian states precipitated the Italian Wars, a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, also the Papal States, France, and the Holy Roman Empire.[11]

The wars, which were both a result and cause of Venetian involvement in the power politics of mainland Italy, prompted Venice to assert its direct rule over its mainland domains.

As much of the fighting during the Italian Wars took place during sieges, increasing levels of fortification were adopted, using such new developments as detached bastions that could withstand sustained artillery fire.[12]

The Treaty of Campo Formio (17 October 1797) formally recognized the inclusion of Bergamo and other parts of Northern Italy into the Cisalpine Republic, a "sister republic" of the French First Republic that was superseded in 1802 by the short-lived Napoleonic Italian Republic and in 1805 by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy.

Late modern and contemporary

At the 1815 Congress of Vienna, Bergamo was assigned to the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, a crown land of the Austrian Empire. The visit of Ferdinand I in 1838 coincided with the opening of the new boulevard stretching into the plains, leading to the railway station that was inaugurated in 1857.

The Austrian rule was at first welcomed, but later challenged by Italian independentist insurrections in 1848.

Giuseppe Garibaldi conquered Bergamo in 1859, during the Second Italian War of Independence. As a result, the city was incorporated into the newly founded Kingdom of Italy.

For its contribution to the Italian unification movement, Bergamo is also known as Città dei Mille ("City of the Thousand"), because a significant part of the rank-and-file supporting Giuseppe Garibaldi in his expedition against the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies came from Bergamo and its environs.

Bergamo Upper Town and Alpi Orobie from the airport

During the twentieth century, Bergamo became one of Italy's most industrialized areas.

In 1907, Marcello Piacentini devised a new urban master plan that was implemented between 1912 and 1927, in a style reminiscent of Novecento Italiano and Modernist Rationalism.

The 2017 43rd G7 summit on agriculture was held in Bergamo, in the context of the broader international meeting organized in Taormina.[13] The "Charter of Bergamo" is an international commitment, signed during the summit, to reduce hunger worldwide by 2030, strengthen cooperation for agricultural development in Africa, and ensure price transparency.[14]

Other Languages
العربية: بيرغامو
aragonés: Bergamo
asturianu: Bérgamu
azərbaycanca: Berqamo
تۆرکجه: برقامو
বাংলা: বেরগামো
беларуская: Бергама
български: Бергамо
brezhoneg: Bergamo
català: Bèrgam
čeština: Bergamo
corsu: Bergamu
Cymraeg: Bergamo
dansk: Bergamo
Deutsch: Bergamo
eesti: Bergamo
Ελληνικά: Μπέργκαμο
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Bêrgum
español: Bérgamo
Esperanto: Bergamo
euskara: Bergamo
فارسی: برگامو
français: Bergame
furlan: Berghem
Gaeilge: Bergamo
Gàidhlig: Bergamo
galego: Bérgamo
한국어: 베르가모
հայերեն: Բերգամո
हिन्दी: बेर्गमो
hrvatski: Bergamo
Ido: Bergamo
Bahasa Indonesia: Bergamo
Ирон: Бергамо
italiano: Bergamo
עברית: ברגמו
Basa Jawa: Bergamo
ქართული: ბერგამო
қазақша: Бергамо
Kiswahili: Bergamo
Latina: Bergomum
latviešu: Bergamo
lietuvių: Bergamas
lumbaart: Bèrghem
magyar: Bergamo
Bahasa Melayu: Bergamo
Nederlands: Bergamo (stad)
日本語: ベルガモ
Napulitano: Bergamo
norsk: Bergamo
norsk nynorsk: Bergamo
occitan: Bergam
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Bergamo
پنجابی: برگامو
Piemontèis: Bérghem
polski: Bergamo
português: Bérgamo
română: Bergamo
Runa Simi: Bergamo
русский: Бергамо
संस्कृतम्: बर्गम
sardu: Bergamo
Scots: Bergamo
shqip: Bergamo
sicilianu: Bèrgamu
Simple English: Bergamo
slovenčina: Bergamo (mesto)
slovenščina: Bergamo
ślůnski: Bergamo
српски / srpski: Бергамо
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Bergamo
suomi: Bergamo
svenska: Bergamo
tarandíne: Bérgame
татарча/tatarça: Бергамо
Türkçe: Bergamo
українська: Бергамо
اردو: بیرگامو
vèneto: Bergamo
Tiếng Việt: Bergamo
Volapük: Bergamo
文言: 貝加莫
Winaray: Bergamo
粵語: 貝加莫
中文: 贝尔加莫