Battle of the Ch'ongch'on River

  • battle of the ch'ongch'on river
    part of the korean war
    a snow covered hill with the hill top on fire and the slopes filled with charging soldiers
    chinese forces overrun a u.n. position.
    datenovember 25 – december 2, 1950
    location
    ch'ongch'on river, north korea
    result decisive chinese victory[1]
    territorial
    changes
    communists regain control of all areas north of the 38th parallel[2]
    belligerents

     united nations (unc)

    •  united states
    •  south korea
    •  turkey
    •  united kingdom
     china
    commanders and leaders
    united states douglas macarthur
    united states walton h. walker
    united states john b. coulter
    united states laurence b. keiser
    south korea yu jae-hung
    south korea paik sun-yup
    turkey tahsin yazıcı
    united kingdom basil aubrey coad[3]
    china mao zedong
    china peng dehuai
    china han xianchu
    units involved
    united states i corps
    • 1st cavalry division
    • 1st rok infantry division
    • 24th infantry division
    united states ix corps
    • 2nd infantry division
    • 25th infantry division
    • united kingdom 27th commonwealth brigade
    • turkey turkish brigade
    south korea ii corps
    • 6th rok infantry division
    • 7th rok infantry division
    • 8th rok infantry division
    united states us fifth air force
    38th corps
    • 112th division
    • 113th division
    • 114th division
    39th corps
    • 115th division
    • 116th division
    • 117th division
    40th corps
    • 118th division
    • 119th division
    • 120th division
    42nd corps
    • 124th division
    • 125th division
    • 126th division
    50th corps
    • 148th division
    • 149th division
    • 150th division
    66th corps
    • 196th division
    • 197th division
    • 198th division
    strength
    254,571[4] 230,000[5][6]
    casualties and losses
    us:
    676 killed
    813 missing
    3,034 wounded
    2,055 captured[7][nb 1]
    turkey:
    218 killed
    94 missing
    455 wounded[8]
    total un casualties:
    11,000+[9]
    chinese estimation:
    23,000[10]

    official data:
    10,000+ battle casualties
    ~20,000 non-battle casualties[11][nb 2]
    30,000+ total casualties

    • 38th corps: 415 killed, 5,005 wounded
    • 39th corps: 463 killed, 1,125 wounded
    • 40th corps: 869 killed, 3,267 wounded
    • 42nd corps: 298 killed, 1,378 wounded
    • 66th corps: 1,347 killed or wounded
      (from november 25 to december 25)[12]

    the battle of the ch'ongch'on river (chinese: 清川江战役; pinyin: qīngchuānjiāng zhànyì), also known as the battle of the ch'ongch'on, was a decisive battle in the korean war, and it took place from november 25 to december 2, 1950, along the ch'ongch'on river valley in the northwestern part of north korea. in response to the successful chinese first phase campaign against the united nations (un) forces, general douglas macarthur launched the home-by-christmas offensive to expel the chinese forces from korea and to end the war. anticipating this reaction, the chinese people's volunteer army (pva) commander peng dehuai planned a counteroffensive, dubbed the "second phase campaign", against the advancing un forces.

    hoping to repeat the success of the earlier first phase campaign, the pva 13th army[nb 3] first launched a series of surprise attacks along the ch'ongch'on river valley on the night of november 25, 1950 at the western half of the second phase campaign[nb 4] (chinese: 第二次战役西线; pinyin: dì'èrcì zhànyì xīxiàn), effectively destroying the eighth united states army's right flank while allowing pva forces to move rapidly into un rear areas. in the subsequent battles and withdrawals during the period of november 26 to december 2, 1950, although the us eighth army managed to avoid being surrounded by pva forces, the pva 13th army were still able to inflict heavy losses onto the retreating un forces which had lost all cohesion. in the aftermath of the battle, the us eighth army's heavy losses forced all un forces to retreat from north korea to the 38th parallel.

  • background
  • prelude
  • battle
  • aftermath
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • further reading

Battle of the Ch'ongch'on River
Part of the Korean War
A snow covered hill with the hill top on fire and the slopes filled with charging soldiers
Chinese forces overrun a U.N. position.
DateNovember 25 – December 2, 1950
Location
Result Decisive Chinese victory[1]
Territorial
changes
Communists regain control of all areas north of the 38th Parallel[2]
Belligerents

 United Nations (UNC)

 China
Commanders and leaders
United States Douglas MacArthur
United States Walton H. Walker
United States John B. Coulter
United States Laurence B. Keiser
South Korea Yu Jae-hung
South Korea Paik Sun-yup
Turkey Tahsin Yazıcı
United Kingdom Basil Aubrey Coad[3]
China Mao Zedong
China Peng Dehuai
China Han Xianchu
Units involved
United States I Corps
United States IX Corps
South Korea II Corps
United States US Fifth Air Force
38th Corps
39th Corps
40th Corps
42nd Corps
50th Corps
66th Corps
Strength
254,571[4] 230,000[5][6]
Casualties and losses
US:
676 killed
813 missing
3,034 wounded
2,055 captured[7][nb 1]
Turkey:
218 killed
94 missing
455 wounded[8]
Total UN casualties:
11,000+[9]
Chinese estimation:
23,000[10]

Official data:
10,000+ battle casualties
~20,000 non-battle casualties[11][nb 2]
30,000+ total casualties

  • 38th Corps: 415 killed, 5,005 wounded
  • 39th Corps: 463 killed, 1,125 wounded
  • 40th Corps: 869 killed, 3,267 wounded
  • 42nd Corps: 298 killed, 1,378 wounded
  • 66th Corps: 1,347 killed or wounded
    (From November 25 to December 25)[12]

The Battle of the Ch'ongch'on River (Chinese: 清川江战役; pinyin: Qīngchuānjiāng Zhànyì), also known as the Battle of the Ch'ongch'on, was a decisive battle in the Korean War, and it took place from November 25 to December 2, 1950, along the Ch'ongch'on River Valley in the northwestern part of North Korea. In response to the successful Chinese First Phase Campaign against the United Nations (UN) forces, General Douglas MacArthur launched the Home-by-Christmas Offensive to expel the Chinese forces from Korea and to end the war. Anticipating this reaction, the Chinese People's Volunteer Army (PVA) Commander Peng Dehuai planned a counteroffensive, dubbed the "Second Phase Campaign", against the advancing UN forces.

Hoping to repeat the success of the earlier First Phase Campaign, the PVA 13th Army[nb 3] first launched a series of surprise attacks along the Ch'ongch'on River Valley on the night of November 25, 1950 at the western half of the Second Phase Campaign[nb 4] (Chinese: 第二次战役西线; pinyin: Dì'èrcì Zhànyì Xīxiàn), effectively destroying the Eighth United States Army's right flank while allowing PVA forces to move rapidly into UN rear areas. In the subsequent battles and withdrawals during the period of November 26 to December 2, 1950, although the US Eighth Army managed to avoid being surrounded by PVA forces, the PVA 13th Army were still able to inflict heavy losses onto the retreating UN forces which had lost all cohesion. In the aftermath of the battle, the US Eighth Army's heavy losses forced all UN forces to retreat from North Korea to the 38th Parallel.