Battle of Wimpfen

Battle of Wimpfen
Part of the Thirty Years' War
Sebastiaan Vrancx - Battle of Wimpfen on 6 May 1622.jpg
Battle of Wimpfen, painting by S. Vrancx
showing the magazine explosion
Date6 May 1622
LocationWimpfen, Swabian Circle, Holy Roman Empire
present-day Baden-Württemberg, Germany

ResultCatholic victory
Belligerents
Margraviate of Baden
fighting for
Electoral Palatinate
 Holy Roman Empire
Catholic League (Germany).svg Catholic League
 Spanish Empire
Commanders and leaders
Georg Friedrich, Margrave of BadenJohann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly
Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba
Strength

10, 404+

Of which 404 are cavalry.

Two 60 pounder guns, One 70 pounder, 20 of a mixture of 3, 5, 6 and 8 pounders and 6 "newly cast' guns and 9 half culverins[1]

Approx: 15, 650+

8,700 infantry, 900 cavalry, seven 12 pounders and 1 half culverin with Tilly.

5,200 infantry, 850 cavalry and five 8 pounders with Spanish.[1]
Casualties and losses
12,000+3,900-4,400
Wimpfen is located in Neckar
Wimpfen
Wimpfen
Location within Neckar region
Wimpfen is located in Baden-Württemberg
Wimpfen
Wimpfen
Wimpfen (Baden-Württemberg)
Wimpfen is located in Germany
Wimpfen
Wimpfen
Wimpfen (Germany)

The Battle of Wimpfen was a battle in the Bohemian Revolt period of the Thirty Years' War on 6 May 1622 near Wimpfen.

The combined forces of the Catholic League and the Spanish Empire under Marshal Tilly and Gonzalo de Córdoba defeated the Protestant forces of Georg Friedrich, Margrave of Baden.

Background

Bohemian revolt

In the Bohemian revolt phase of the Thirty Years' War, the Protestant Bohemian nobility refused to confirm catholic Ferdinand II as their king and had offered count Frederick V of the Palatinate the crown of Bohemia. Frederick was crowned in 1619 but lost the kingdom to Catholic League troops under General Tilly at the Battle of the White Mountain in 1620.

Due to disunity among Protestant princes the Protestant Union was forced to declare its neutrality in the conflict in the Treaty of Ulm in 1620 and dissolved the following year.

Palatinate campaign

Count Georg Friedrich, Margrave of Baden had been one of the Protestant Union's generals and maintained the mercenary army he had raised.

When General Tilly moved the Catholic League army from Bavaria towards the Palatinate in April 1622 to continue the war against Frederick V, Georg Friedrich declared for Frederick's cause. He marched his army to join General Mansfeld's troops and met with them a few days after their victory against Tilly at the Battle of Mingolsheim on April 27.

By early May, the forces of Christian of Brunswick had arrived to the north of the Neckar River and were prepared to assist their fellow Protestants. While Mansfeld crossed the Neckar at Heidelberg to join with Brunswick, Georg Friedrich pursued Tilly's army who were retreating east towards the Neckar crossing at Wimpfen. Unknown to the Protestants, a Spanish army under General Córdoba had reinforced Tilly with several thousand men in the meantime.

Late on May 5, the Protestant troops, coming from the southwest, crossed a small creek (called Böllinger Bach) near the village of Obereisesheim (de) and formed up in battle lines.

Other Languages
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Бітва пры Вімпфэне
한국어: 빔펜 전투
Nederlands: Slag bij Wimpfen