Battle of Sekigahara

Battle of Sekigahara
Part of the Sengoku period
Sekigaharascreen.jpg
Edo period screen depicting the battle.
DateOctober 21, 1600
LocationSekigahara, present-day Gifu Prefecture
ResultDecisive Tokugawa victory; beginning of Tokugawa shogunate
Territorial
changes
Tokugawa gains nominal control of all Japan
Belligerents
大一大万大吉.svg Western Army: Forces loyal to Toyotomi Hideyori, many clans from Western JapanTokugawa family crest.svg Eastern Army: Forces of Tokugawa Ieyasu, clans of Eastern Japan
Commanders and leaders
Ishida Mitsunari Executed
Mōri Terumoto
Ōtani Yoshitsugu 
Shimazu Yoshihiro
Konishi Yukinaga Executed
Ukita Hideie
Toda Shigemasa 
Toda Katsushige 
Gamo Yorisato 
Natsuka Masaie 
Shima Sakon 
Shimazu Toyohisa 
Tokugawa Ieyasu
Ii Naomasa
(died from wounds)
Hosokawa Tadaoki
Honda Tadakatsu
Kuroda Nagamasa
Matsudaira Tadayoshi
(died from wounds)
Strength
120,000 initially,[1]
81,890 by the time of battle[2]
75,000 initially,[1]
88,888 by the time of battle[2]
Casualties and losses
5,000–32,000 dead
~23,000 defected
Unknown; but not excessive
Ii Naomasa (wounded)
Matsudaira Tadayoshi (wounded)
Commanders of Eastern Army (Tokugawa Force)
Tokugawa Ieyasu: 30,000 men
Maeda Toshinaga
Date Masamune
Katō Kiyomasa: 3,000 men
Fukushima Masanori: 6,000 men
Hosokawa Tadaoki: 5,000 men
Asano Yoshinaga: 6,510 men
Ikeda Terumasa: 4,560 men
Ikeda Sen: 200 women
Kuroda Nagamasa: 5,400 men
Katō Yoshiaki: 3,000 men
Komatsuhime
Tanaka Yoshimasa: 3,000 men
Tōdō Takatora: 2,490 men
Sanada Nobuyuki
Mogami Yoshiaki
Yamauchi Katsutoyo: 2,058 men
Hachisuka Yoshishige
Honda Tadakatsu: 500 men
Terasawa Hirotaka: 2,400 men
Ikoma Kazumasa: 1,830 men
Ii Naomasa: 3,600 men
Matsudaira Tadayoshi: 3,000 men
Oda Nagamasu: 450 men
Tsutsui Sadatsugu: 2,850 men
Kanamori Nagachika: 1,140 men
Tomita Nobutaka
Furuta Shigekatsu: 1,200 men
Wakebe Mitsuyoshi
Horio Tadauji
Nakamura Kazutada
Arima Toyouji: 900 men
Kyōgoku Takatomo: 3,000 men
Commanders of Western Army (Ishida Force)
Mōri Terumoto (official head of the alliance) (not present)
Uesugi Kagekatsu
Maeda Toshimasa (Brother of Maeda Toshinaga)
Ukita Hideie: 17,000 men
Shimazu Yoshihiro: 1,500 men
Kobayakawa Hideaki (defected): 15,600 men
Ishida Mitsunari (de facto head of the alliance): 4,000 men
Konishi Yukinaga: 4,000 men
Mashita Nagamori
Ogawa Suketada (defected): 2,100 men
Ōtani Yoshitsugu: 600 men
Wakisaka Yasuharu (defected): 990 men
Ankokuji Ekei: 1,800 men
Satake Yoshinobu
Oda Hidenobu
Chōsokabe Morichika: 6,600 men
Kutsuki Mototsuna (defected): 600 men
Akaza Naoyasu (defected): 600 men
Kikkawa Hiroie (defected): 3,000 men
Natsuka Masaie: 1,500 men
Mōri Hidemoto: 15,000 men
Tachibana Ginchiyo
Toda Katsushige: 1,500 men
Sanada Masayuki
Sanada Yukimura: 40
Shima Sakon: 1,000 men
Gamo Bitchu: 1,000 men
Ōtani Yoshikatsu: 3,500 men
Shimazu Toyohisa: 750 men
Vassals of the Toyotomi: 2,000 men

The Battle of Sekigahara (Shinjitai: 関ヶ原の戦い; Kyūjitai: 關ヶ原の戰い Sekigahara no Tatakai) was a decisive battle on October 21, 1600 (Keichō 5, 15th day of the 9th month), that preceded the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate.

Tokugawa Ieyasu took three more years to consolidate his position of power over the Toyotomi clan and the daimyōs, but Sekigahara is widely considered to be the unofficial beginning of the Tokugawa bakufu, the last shogunate to control Japan.

Background

Oda Nobunaga had slowly consolidated control over much of Japan and was in control of the shōgun, Ashikaga Yoshiaki. Ashikaga tried to escape this predicament in 1573 by attacking Oda, but failed and was exiled, thus ending his shōgunate. Oda ruled unopposed until he was betrayed by his own retainer Akechi Mitsuhide in 1582. While under attack in Kyoto, Oda committed suicide by seppuku (not proved). Toyotomi Hideyoshi quickly avenged his master Oda and consolidated control over Japan. Toyotomi had risen from humble roots – his father was an ashigaru (foot-soldier) – to become the ruler of Japan. His death created a power vacuum which ultimately was resolved by the outcome at Sekigahara.[3][4]

Even though Toyotomi Hideyoshi unified Japan and consolidated his power following the Siege of Odawara in 1590, his failures in his invasions of Korea significantly weakened the Toyotomi clan's power as well as the support of the loyalists and bureaucrats who continued to serve and support the Toyotomi clan after Hideyoshi's death during the second invasion.[4] The presence of Hideyoshi and his brother Hidenaga kept the two main factions of the time, which rallied behind Ishida Mitsunari and Tokugawa Ieyasu respectively, from anything more than quarrelling, but when both of them died, the conflicts were exacerbated and developed into open hostilities.[4][5] With no appointed shōgun over the armies, this left a power vacuum in the Japanese government.

Most notably, Katō Kiyomasa and Fukushima Masanori were publicly critical of the bureaucrats, especially Ishida Mitsunari and Konishi Yukinaga. Tokugawa Ieyasu took advantage of this situation, and recruited them, redirecting the animosity to weaken the Toyotomi clan.[6]

Other Languages
Bahasa Indonesia: Pertempuran Sekigahara
Bahasa Melayu: Pertempuran Sekigahara
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Bitka kod Sekigahare
Tiếng Việt: Trận Sekigahara
吴语: 关原大战
粵語: 關原之戰
中文: 關原之戰