Battle of Monterrey

Battle of Monterrey
Part of Mexican–American War
Ustroopsmarchonmonterrey.jpg
US troops marching on Monterrey during the Mexican–American War, lithograph by Carl Nebel
DateSeptember 21–24, 1846
LocationMonterrey, Nuevo León
ResultUnited States victory
Belligerents
 United StatesMexico Mexico
Commanders and leaders
Zachary TaylorPedro de Ampudia
Jose Garcia-Conde
Francisco Mejia
Strength
6,220[1]:1007,303[1]:100
Casualties and losses
488 killed and wounded (120 killed
368 wounded)
43 missing[1]:100
367 killed and wounded[1]:100

In the Battle of Monterrey (September 21–24, 1846) during the Mexican–American War, General Pedro de Ampudia and the Mexican Army of the North was defeated by the Army of Occupation, a force of United States Regulars, Volunteers and Texas Rangers under the command of General Zachary Taylor.

The hard-fought urban combat led to heavy casualties on both sides. The battle ended with both sides negotiating a two-month armistice and the Mexican forces being allowed to make an orderly evacuation in return for the surrender of the city.

Background

Gen. Worth's division marches on Monterrey from the west

Following the Battle of Resaca de la Palma, Taylor crossed the Rio Grande on 18 May, while in early June, Mariano Arista turned over command of what remained of his army, 2,638 men, to Francisco Mejia, who led them to Monterrey.[1]:82 On 8 June, United States Secretary of War William L. Marcy ordered Taylor to continue command of operations in northern Mexico, suggested taking Monterrey, and defined his objective to "dispose the enemy to desire an end to the war."[1]:86 On 8 August, Taylor established the headquarters for his Army of Occupation in Camargo, Tamaulipas and then in Cerralvo on 9 September with 6.640 men.[1]:88–89 Taylor resumed the march to Monterrey on 11 September, reaching Marin on 15 September and departing on 18 September[1]:90

In early July, General Tomas Requena garrisoned Monterrey with 1,800 men, with the remnants of Arista's army and additional forces from Mexico City arriving by the end of August such that the Mexican forces totaled 7,303 men.[1]:89, 100 General Pedro de Ampudia received orders from Antonio López de Santa Anna to retreat further to the city of Saltillo, where Ampudia was to establish a defensive line, but Ampudia disagreed, sensing glory if he could stop Taylor's advance.[1]:90 Ampudia's forces included reinforcements from Mexico City totaling 3,140 men: 1,080 men of the Garcia-Conde Brigade (Gen. Jose Garcia Conde) (Aguascalientes and Querétaro Battalions, two squadrons of the 3d Line Cavalry, three guns (3-8lbs)), a thousand men of the Azpeitia Brigade (Col. Florencio Azpeitia) (3d Line, two squadrons of the Jalisco lancers, two squadrons of the Guanajuato Cavalry Regiment, six guns (8 and 12lbs.) and an ambulance), 1,060 men of the Simeon Ramirez Brigade (Acting Gen. Ramirez) (3d and 4th Light, three guns (1-8lbs, 2-12 −lbs) and 3 howitzers 7" (Capt. P. Gutierrez and Comdte. A. Nieto)) and an artillery unit, the largely Irish-American volunteers called San Patricios (or the Saint Patrick's Battalion), in their first major engagement against U.S. forces.

Mexican Order of Battle:

   Army of the North '
     Commander: Gen. div.Pedro de Ampudia
     Chief of Staff: Gen. J. Garcia Conde
     Engineers: Capt. Luis Robles
     Zapadores Battalion: Lt. Col. Mariano Reyes
      Artillery: Gen. Tomas Requena
       26 field guns & 3 howitzers  about 7-8 batteries
       Battery:  Comdte Luis Nieto          (3 howitzers)
         "     : Capt. Ignacio J. del Arana (3-8 lbs.)
         "     : Capt. Patricio Gutierrez   (2-12 lbs & 1-8 lbs.)
         "     : Capt.Jacinto Dominquez     (?)
         "     : "San Patricios"            (?)
        2- 3 more batteries
        
         1st Infantry Brigade: Acting gen. Simeon Ramirez
            3d & 4th Ligero (Light) Aguascalientes Activos
         2d Infantry Brigade: Act.gen. Francisco Mejia−−−
            2d Ligero, 6th & 10th Line, Querétaro Activos
         3d Infantry Brigade: Col. Jose Lopez Uraga
            3d & 4th Line, Mexico 1st Activos
         1st Cavalry Brigade:Act. gen. Anastasio Torrejon
            1st, 7th & 8th Cavalry, Mexico Light Mounted
         2d Cavalry Brigade: Act.gen. Manuel Romerro
            3d Cavalry, Jalisco Lasncers, Guanajauto & San Luis Potosi Activos

<Adams, Anton. The War in Mexico. Chicago, IL 1998>

<Balbontin, Manuel. Memorias. San Luis Potosi. 1896>