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. (November 2010)
Jacobite banner showing the Latin motto Tandem Triumphans
. (The motto, meaning 'At last, Triumphant', was said to have been added after the events at Glenfinnan).
Charles Edward Stuart, known as "Bonnie Prince Charlie" or the "Young Pretender", arrived in Scotland in 1745 to incite a rebellion of Stuart sympathizers against the House of Hanover. He successfully raised forces, mainly of
clansmen, and slipped past the
Hanoverian stationed in
Scotland and defeated a force of
militiamen at the
Battle of Prestonpans. The city of
Edinburgh was occupied, but the castle held out and most of the Scottish population remained hostile to the rebels; others, while sympathetic, were reluctant to lend overt support to a movement whose chances were unproven. The British Government recalled forces from the
war with France in Flanders to deal with the rebellion.
After a lengthy wait, Charles persuaded his generals that English Jacobites would stage an uprising in support of his cause. He was convinced that France would launch an invasion of England as well. His army of around 5,000 invaded England on 8 November 1745. They advanced through
Derby and a position where they appeared to threaten
London. It is often alleged that King
George II made plans to decamp to
Hanover, but there is no evidence for this and the King is on record as stating that he would lead the troops against the rebels himself if they approached London. (George had experience at the head of an army: in 1743 he had led his soldiers to victory at the
Battle of Dettingen, becoming the last British monarch to lead troops into battle.
) The Jacobites met only token resistance. There was, however, little support from English Jacobites, and the French invasion fleet was still being assembled. The armies of
George Wade and of
William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, were approaching. In addition to the militia, London was defended by nearly 6,000 infantry, 700 horse and 33 artillery pieces and the Jacobites received false reports of a third army closing on them. The Jacobite general,
Lord George Murray, and the Council of War insisted on returning to join their growing force in Scotland. On 6 December 1745, they withdrew, with Charles Edward Stuart leaving command to Murray.
On the long march back to Scotland, the Highland Army wore out its boots and demanded all the boots and shoes of the townspeople of
Dumfries, as well as money and hospitality. The Jacobites reached
Glasgow on 25 December. There they reprovisioned, having threatened to sack the city, and were joined by a few thousand additional men. They then defeated the forces of General
Henry Hawley at the
Battle of Falkirk Muir. The Duke of Cumberland arrived in Edinburgh on 30 January to take over command of the government army from General Hawley. He then marched north along the coast, with the army being supplied by sea. Six weeks were spent at
The King's forces continued to pressure Charles. He retired north, losing men and failing to take
Stirling Castle or
Fort William. But he invested
Fort Augustus and
Fort George in
Inverness-shire in early April. Charles then took command again, and insisted on fighting a defensive action.
Hugh Rose of Kilravock entertained Charles and the Duke of Cumberland respectively on 14 and 15 April 1746, before the Battle of Culloden. Charles' manners and deportment were described by his host as most engaging. Having walked out with Rose, before sitting down he watched trees being planted. He remarked, "How happy, Sir, you must feel, to be thus peaceably employed in adorning your mansion, whilst all the country round is in such commotion." Kilravock was a firm supporter of the house of Hanover, but his adherence was not solicited, nor were his preferences alluded to. The next day, the Duke of Cumberland called at the castle gate, and when Kilravock went to receive him, he bluffly observed, "So you had my cousin Charles here yesterday." Kilravock replied, "What am I to do, I am Scots", to which Cumberland replied, "You did perfectly right."