In Yemen, separatists have been calling for the independence of South Yemen, which was until 1990 an independent state officially known as the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, with its state capital as Aden. After its incorporation into Yemen Arab Republic, there were two major attempts to secede, the Yemeni Civil War of 1994 and the South Yemen insurgency (2009–2015).
The Southern Transitional Council was created in May 2017. Governor of Aden Aidarus al-Zoubaidi, dismissed from his office on 27 April 2017 by Yemeni President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, became its leader.
The Southern National Assembly, made up of 303 members from every southern province, held its first parliamentary session in Aden on 26 December 2017.
Amid tensions between the UAE-backed Southern Transitional Council and the Saudi-backed Hadi government in Aden, the STC announced on 21 January 2018 that it would overthrow the Yemeni government within a week unless President Hadi sacked his entire cabinet, including Prime Minister Ahmed Obeid bin Daghr for corruption. The STC also declared a state of emergency until its demands are met. The government responded by banning protests in Aden, but the STC organised an anti-government rally for 28 January 2018.