Basques

Basques
Euskaldunak
Total population
c. 3 million
Regions with significant populations
 Spain
(people living in the Basque Provinces of Spain, including some areas where most people do not identify themselves as Basque)
2,410,000[1][2]
 France
(people living in the French Basque Country, not all of whom identify as Basque)
239,000[1]
 United States
(self-identifying as having Basque ancestry)
57,793[3]
 Canada
(including those of mixed ancestry)
6,965[4]
Languages
Basque, Spanish, French
Religion
Christianity (mostly Catholicism),[5] others

The Basques (s/ or s/; Basque: euskaldunak [eus̺kaldunak]; Spanish: vascos [ˈbaskos]; French: basques [bask]) are an indigenous ethnic group[6][7][8] characterised by the Basque language, a common culture and shared ancestry to the ancient Vascones and Aquitanians.[9] Basques are indigenous to and primarily inhabit an area traditionally known as the Basque Country (Basque: Euskal Herria), a region that is located around the western end of the Pyrenees on the coast of the Bay of Biscay and straddles parts of north-central Spain and south-western France.

Etymology of the word Basque

Barscunes coin, Roman period

The English word Basque may be pronounced k/ or k/ and derives from the French Basque (French pronunciation: ​[bask]), which is derived from Gascon Basco (pronounced /ˈbasku/), cognate with Spanish Vasco (pronounced /ˈbasko/). These, in turn, come from Latin Vasco (pronounced /wasko/), plural Vascones (see History section below). The Latin labial-velar approximant /w/ generally evolved into the bilabials /b/ and /β̞/ in Gascon and Spanish, probably under the influence of Basque and Aquitanian, a language related to old Basque and spoken in Gascony in Antiquity (similarly the Latin /w/ evolved into /v/ in French, Italian and other languages).

Several coins from the 2nd and 1st centuries BC found in the Basque Country bear the inscription barscunes. The place where they were minted is not certain, but is thought to be somewhere near Pamplona, in the heartland of the area that historians believe was inhabited by the Vascones. Some scholars have suggested a Celtic etymology based on bhar-s-, meaning "summit", "point" or "leaves", according to which barscunes may have meant "the mountain people", "the tall ones" or "the proud ones", while others have posited a relationship to a proto-Indo-European root *bar- meaning "border", "frontier", "march".[10]

In Basque, people call themselves the euskaldunak, singular euskaldun, formed from euskal- (i.e. "Basque (language)") and -dun (i.e. "one who has"); euskaldun literally means a Basque speaker. Not all Basques are Basque-speakers. Therefore, the neologism euskotar, plural euskotarrak, was coined in the 19th century to mean a culturally Basque person, whether Basque-speaking or not. Alfonso Irigoyen posits that the word euskara is derived from an ancient Basque verb enautsi "to say" (cf. modern Basque esan) and the suffix -(k)ara ("way (of doing something)"). Thus euskara would literally mean "way of saying", "way of speaking". One item of evidence in favour of this hypothesis is found in the Spanish book Compendio Historial, written in 1571 by the Basque writer Esteban de Garibay. He records the name of the Basque language as enusquera. It may, however, be a writing mistake.

In the 19th century, the Basque nationalist activist Sabino Arana posited an original root euzko which, he thought, came from eguzkiko ("of the sun", related to the assumption of an original solar religion). On the basis of this putative root, Arana proposed the name Euzkadi for an independent Basque nation, composed of seven Basque historical territories. Arana's neologism Euzkadi (in the regularized spelling Euskadi) is still widely used in both Basque and Spanish, since it is now the official name of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country.

Other Languages
адыгабзэ: Баскхэр
Afrikaans: Baske
Alemannisch: Basken
Ænglisc: Wascas
العربية: باسكيون
aragonés: Vascos
asturianu: Vascu
azərbaycanca: Basklar
تۆرکجه: باسک‌لار
Bân-lâm-gú: Basque lâng
беларуская: Баскі
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Баскі
български: Баски
bosanski: Baski
català: Bascos
čeština: Baskové
Cymraeg: Basgiaid
dansk: Baskere
Deutsch: Basken
eesti: Baskid
Ελληνικά: Βάσκοι
español: Vasco
Esperanto: Eŭskoj
euskara: Euskaldun
فارسی: باسک
français: Basques
Gaeilge: Bascaigh
galego: Pobo vasco
한국어: 바스크인
Հայերեն: Բասկեր
hrvatski: Baski
Bahasa Indonesia: Basque
íslenska: Baskar
italiano: Baschi
עברית: בסקים
ქართული: ბასკები
қазақша: Баскілер
Kiswahili: Wabaski
kurdî: Bask (gel)
кырык мары: Басквлӓ
لۊری شومالی: خألک باسک
latviešu: Baski
lietuvių: Baskai
la .lojban.: skalduna
magyar: Baszkok
მარგალური: ბასკეფი
Bahasa Melayu: Orang Basque
Nederlands: Basken
日本語: バスク人
нохчийн: Баскаш
norsk: Baskere
occitan: Bascs
олык марий: Баск
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Basklar
پنجابی: باسکوئی لوک
polski: Baskowie
português: Bascos
română: Basci
rumantsch: Bascs
русский: Баски
саха тыла: Баски омук
Scots: Basques
sicilianu: Baschi
slovenčina: Baskovia
ślůnski: Baski
српски / srpski: Баски
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Baski
suomi: Baskit
svenska: Basker (folk)
Taqbaylit: Ibaskiyen
тоҷикӣ: Баскҳо
Türkçe: Basklar
українська: Баски
اردو: باسک
Tiếng Việt: Người Basque
粵語: 巴斯克人
Zazaki: Bask
中文: 巴斯克人