Barbados

Barbados

Motto: "Pride and Industry"

Location of Barbados
Capital
and largest city
Bridgetown
13°06′N 59°37′W / 13°06′N 59°37′W / 13.100; -59.617
Official languagesEnglish
Recognised regional languagesBajan Creole
Ethnic groups
(2010[1])
Religion
Demonym(s)
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
Dame Sandra Mason
Mia Mottley
LegislatureParliament
Senate
House of Assembly
Independence
• From the United Kingdom
30 November 1966
Area
• Total
439 km2 (169 sq mi) (183rd)
• Water (%)
Negligible
Population
• 2010 census
277,821[2] (181st)
• Density
660/km2 (1,709.4/sq mi) (15th)
GDP (PPP)2016 estimate
• Total
$4.663 billion[3]
• Per capita
$16,669[3] (73rd)
GDP (nominal)2016 estimate
• Total
$4.385 billion[3]
• Per capita
$15,677[3]
HDI (2017)Increase 0.800[4]
very high · 58th
CurrencyBarbadian dollar ($) (BBD)
Time zoneUTC−4 (Eastern Caribbean)
• Summer (DST)
UTC−4 (Not observed)
Driving sideleft[5]
Calling code+1 -246
ISO 3166 codeBB
Internet TLD.bb

Barbados (s/ (About this soundlisten) or s/) is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America. It is 34 kilometres (21 miles) in length and up to 23 km (14 mi) in width, covering an area of 432 km2 (167 sq mi). It is situated in the western area of the North Atlantic and 100 km (62 mi) east of the Windward Islands and the Caribbean Sea;[6] therein, Barbados is east of the Windwards, part of the Lesser Antilles, roughly at 13°N of the equator. It is about 168 km (104 mi) east of both the countries of Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and 400 km (250 mi) north-east of Trinidad and Tobago. Barbados is outside the principal Atlantic hurricane belt. Its capital and largest city is Bridgetown.

Inhabited by Kalinago people since the 13th century, and prior to that by other Amerindians, Barbados was visited by Spanish navigators in the late 15th century and claimed for the Spanish Crown. It first appeared in a Spanish map in 1511.[7][8] The Portuguese visited the island in 1536, but they left it unclaimed, with their only remnants being an introduction of wild hogs for a good supply of meat whenever the island was visited. An English ship, the Olive Blossom, arrived in Barbados in 1625; its men took possession of it in the name of King James I. In 1627, the first permanent settlers arrived from England, and it became an English and later British colony.[9] As a wealthy sugar colony, it became an English centre of the African slave trade until that trade was outlawed in 1807, with final emancipation of slaves in Barbados occurring over a period of years from 1833.

On 30 November 1966, Barbados became an independent state and Commonwealth realm with the British monarch (currently Queen Elizabeth II) as hereditary head of state.[10] It has a population of 284,996[11] people, predominantly of African descent. Despite being classified as an Atlantic island, Barbados is considered to be a part of the Caribbean, where it is ranked as a leading tourist destination. Forty percent of the tourists come from the UK, with the US and Canada making up the next large groups of visitors to the island.

Etymology

The name "Barbados" is from either the Portuguese term Os Barbados or the Spanish equivalent, Los Barbados, both meaning "the bearded ones". It is unclear whether "bearded" refers to the long, hanging roots of the bearded fig-tree (Ficus citrifolia), indigenous to the island, or to the allegedly bearded Caribs who once inhabited the island, or, more fancifully, to a visual impression of a beard formed by the sea foam that sprays over the outlying reefs. In 1519, a map produced by the Genoese mapmaker Visconte Maggiolo showed and named Barbados in its correct position. Furthermore, the island of Barbuda in the Leewards is very similar in name and was once named "Las Barbudas" by the Spanish.

It is uncertain which European nation arrived first in Barbados. One lesser-known source points to earlier revealed works predating contemporary sources indicating it could have been the Spanish.[7] Many if not most believe the Portuguese, en route to Brazil,[12][13] were the first Europeans to come upon the island.

The original name for Barbados in the Pre-Columbian era was Ichirouganaim, according to accounts by descendants of the indigenous Arawakan-speaking tribes in other regional areas, with possible translations including "Red land with white teeth"[14] or "Redstone island with teeth outside (reefs)"[15] or simply "Teeth".[16][17][18]

Colloquially, Barbadians refer to their home island as "Bim" or other nicknames associated with Barbados, including "Bimshire". The origin is uncertain, but several theories exist. The National Cultural Foundation of Barbados says that "Bim" was a word commonly used by slaves, and that it derives from the Igbo term bém from bé mụ́ meaning 'my home, kindred, kind',[19] the Igbo phoneme /e/ in the Igbo orthography is very close to [ɪ].[20] The name could have arisen due to the relatively large percentage of enslaved Igbo people from modern-day southeastern Nigeria arriving in Barbados in the 18th century.[21][22]

The words 'Bim' and 'Bimshire' are recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionaries. Another possible source for 'Bim' is reported to be in the Agricultural Reporter of 25 April 1868, where the Rev. N. Greenidge (father of one of the island's most famous scholars, Abel Hendy Jones Greenidge) suggested the listing of Bimshire as a county of England. Expressly named were "Wiltshire, Hampshire, Berkshire and Bimshire".[19] Lastly, in the Daily Argosy (of Demerara, i.e. Guyana) of 1652, there is a reference to Bim as a possible corruption of 'Byam', the name of a Royalist leader against the Parliamentarians. That source suggested the followers of Byam became known as 'Bims' and that this became a word for all Barbadians.[19]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Barbados
Alemannisch: Barbados
አማርኛ: ባርቤዶስ
Ænglisc: Barbados
العربية: باربادوس
aragonés: Barbados
arpetan: Barbâda
asturianu: Barbados
Avañe'ẽ: Varvado
Aymar aru: Barbados
azərbaycanca: Barbados
تۆرکجه: باربادوس
Bân-lâm-gú: Barbados
башҡортса: Барбадос
беларуская: Барбадас
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Барбадас
भोजपुरी: बारबाडोस
Bikol Central: Barbados
български: Барбадос
Boarisch: Barbados
བོད་ཡིག: བར་བ་ཌོ་སི།
bosanski: Barbados
brezhoneg: Barbados
буряад: Барбадос
català: Barbados
Cebuano: Barbados
čeština: Barbados
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Barbados
chiShona: Barbados
Cymraeg: Barbados
dansk: Barbados
davvisámegiella: Barbados
Deutsch: Barbados
ދިވެހިބަސް: ބާބަޑޮސް
dolnoserbski: Barbados
डोटेली: बार्बाडोस
eesti: Barbados
Ελληνικά: Μπαρμπάντος
эрзянь: Барбадос
español: Barbados
Esperanto: Barbado
estremeñu: Barbaus
euskara: Barbados
eʋegbe: Barbados
فارسی: باربادوس
Fiji Hindi: Barbados
føroyskt: Barbados
français: Barbade
Frysk: Barbados
Gaeilge: Barbadós
Gaelg: Barbados
Gagauz: Barbados
Gàidhlig: Barbados
galego: Barbados
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: बार्बाडोस
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Barbados
한국어: 바베이도스
հայերեն: Բարբադոս
हिन्दी: बारबाडोस
hornjoserbsce: Barbados
hrvatski: Barbados
Igbo: Barbados
Ilokano: Barbados
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: বার্বাডোস
Bahasa Indonesia: Barbados
interlingua: Barbados
Interlingue: Barbados
íslenska: Barbados
italiano: Barbados
עברית: ברבדוס
Basa Jawa: Barbadhos
Kapampangan: Barbados
ქართული: ბარბადოსი
қазақша: Барбадос
kernowek: Barbados
Kinyarwanda: Barubadosi
Kiswahili: Barbados
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lababad
kurdî: Barbados
Кыргызча: Барбадос
кырык мары: Барбадос
Ladino: Barbados
Latina: Barbata
latviešu: Barbadosa
Lëtzebuergesch: Barbados
lietuvių: Barbadosas
Ligure: Barbados
Limburgs: Barbados
lingála: Barbados
Lingua Franca Nova: Barbados
Livvinkarjala: Barbados
lumbaart: Barbados
magyar: Barbados
македонски: Барбадос
Malagasy: Barbady
മലയാളം: ബാർബേഡോസ്
Malti: Barbados
მარგალური: ბარბადოსი
مازِرونی: باربادوس
Bahasa Melayu: Barbados
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Barbados
мокшень: Барбадос
монгол: Барбадос
Dorerin Naoero: Barbadot
Nederlands: Barbados
नेपाली: बार्बाडोस
नेपाल भाषा: बार्बाडोस
日本語: バルバドス
нохчийн: Барбадос
Nordfriisk: Barbados
Norfuk / Pitkern: Barbados
norsk: Barbados
norsk nynorsk: Barbados
Novial: Barbados
occitan: Barbados
олык марий: Барбадос
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ବାରବାଡୋସ
Oromoo: Baarbeedoos
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Barbados
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬਾਰਬਾਡੋਸ
پنجابی: باربادوس
Papiamentu: Barbados
Patois: Baabiedoz
Piemontèis: Barbados
Plattdüütsch: Barbados
polski: Barbados
português: Barbados
Qaraqalpaqsha: Barbados
qırımtatarca: Barbados
română: Barbados
rumantsch: Barbados
русиньскый: Барбадос
русский: Барбадос
саха тыла: Барбадос
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱵᱟᱨᱵᱟᱰᱚᱥ
संस्कृतम्: बार्बाडोस
Scots: Barbados
Seeltersk: Barbados
shqip: Barbadosi
sicilianu: Barbados
Simple English: Barbados
SiSwati: IBhadosi
slovenčina: Barbados
slovenščina: Barbados
ślůnski: Barbados
Soomaaliga: Barbados
کوردی: باربادۆس
српски / srpski: Барбадос
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Barbados
Basa Sunda: Barbados
suomi: Barbados
svenska: Barbados
Tagalog: Barbados
Taqbaylit: Barbados
татарча/tatarça: Барбадос
తెలుగు: బార్బడోస్
tetun: Barbadus
тоҷикӣ: Барбадос
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏆᏇᏙᏍ
Türkçe: Barbados
українська: Барбадос
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: باربادوس
Vahcuengh: Barbados
vèneto: Barbados
vepsän kel’: Barbados
Tiếng Việt: Barbados
Volapük: Barbadeän
Võro: Barbados
walon: Barbåde
文言: 巴貝多
Winaray: Barbados
Wolof: Barbados
吴语: 巴巴多斯
ייִדיש: בארבאדאס
Yorùbá: Bárbádọ̀s
粵語: 巴巴多斯
Zazaki: Barbados
Zeêuws: Barbados
žemaitėška: Barbaduosos
中文: 巴巴多斯