Bangladesh

People's Republic of Bangladesh

  • গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ (Bengali)
  • Gônoprojatontri Bangladesh
Anthem: "Amar Sonar Bangla" (Bengali)
"My Golden Bengal"


March: "Notuner Gaan"
"The Song of Youth"[1]
Location of Bangladesh
Location of Bangladesh
Capital
and largest city
Dhaka
23°42′N 90°21′E / 23°42′N 90°21′E / 23.700; 90.350
Official language
and national language
Bengali[2]
Ethnic groups
(2011[3])
Religion
(2011[4])
Demonym(s)Bangladeshi
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary
constitutional republic
• President
Abdul Hamid
Sheikh Hasina
Shirin Chaudhury
Syed Mahmud Hossain
LegislatureJatiya Sangsad
• Declared
26 March 1971
• V-Day
16 December 1971
Area
• Total
147,570[5] km2 (56,980 sq mi) (92nd)
• Water (%)
6.4
Population
• 2016 estimate
Increase162,951,560[6] (8th)
• 2011 census
149,772,364[7] (8th)
• Density
1,106/km2 (2,864.5/sq mi) (10th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase$831.750 billion[8]
(29th)
• Per capita
Increase$4,992[8]
(136th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase$314.656 billion[8]
(39th)
• Per capita
Increase$1,888[8]
(143th)
Gini (2016)32.4[9]
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.608[10]
medium · 136th
CurrencyBangladeshi taka () (BDT)
Time zoneUTC+6 (BST)
Date format
  • dd-mm-yyyy
  • BS দদ-মম-বববব (CE−594)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+880
ISO 3166 codeBD
Internet TLD.bd
bangladesh.gov.bd

Bangladesh (ŋ-/; Bengali: বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh [ˈbaŋladeʃ] (About this soundlisten), lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ Gônoprojatontri Bangladesh), is a country in South Asia. It is the world's 8th-most populous country with a population exceeding 162,951,560 people.[6] In area, it is the 92nd-largest country, spanning 147,570 square kilometres (56,980 sq mi). It shares land borders with India to the west and Myanmar to the east. It is also one of the most densely-populated countries in the world. Dhaka is its capital and largest city, and is also the economic, political and the cultural center of Bangladesh, followed by Chittagong, which has the country's largest port. Bangladesh forms the largest and eastern part of the Bengal region.[11] The country's geography is dominated by the Bengal delta, the largest delta in the world. The country has many rivers and 8,046 km (5,000 mi) of inland waterways. Highlands with evergreen forests are found in the northeastern and southeastern regions of the country. The country also has the longest sea beach and the largest mangrove forest in the world. The country's biodiversity includes a vast array of plants and wildlife, including the endangered Bengal tiger, the national animal.

According to the Ramayana and Mahabharata, the Vanga Kingdom was known as an ally of the legendary Ayodhya and was notable for its strong navy. In the ancient and classical period of the Indian subcontinent, the territory of Bangladesh was home to many principalities, including the powerful Gangaridai, whose military power led Alexander the Great to withdrew from India.[12] It was later dominated by the Pundra, Gauda, Samatata and Harikela. It was also a Mauryan province under the reign of Ashoka. The principalities were notable for their overseas trade, which involved contacts with the Roman world, the export of fine muslin and silk to the Middle East, and spreading philosophy and art to Southeast Asia. The principalities dominated the Bengal delta with powerful navies. The Pala Empire, the Chandra dynasty and the Sena dynasty were the last pre-Islamic Bengali middle kingdoms.

Islam was introduced during the Pala Empire, through trade with the Abbasid Caliphate,[13] but following the early conquest of Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji and the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate and Shah Jalal in East Bengal, it fully spread across the entire region. During the Bengal Sultanate, founded in 1352, Bengal was transformed into a cosmopolitan Islamic superpower and became a major trading nation in the world, often referred by the Europeans as the richest country to trade with.[14] Later, it was absorbed into the Mughal Empire in 1576, although part of the region was overran by the Suri Empire. The Bengal Subah, described as the Paradise of the Nations,[15] was the empire's wealthiest province, and a major global exporter,[16][17][18] a notable center of worldwide industries such as muslin, cotton textiles, silk,[19] and shipbuilding,[20] it made 12% of the world's GDP,[21][22][23] a value bigger than the entirety of Western Europe. Its citizens also enjoyed one of the world's most superior living standards.[24][25] The region was home to many principalities that made use of their inland naval prowess such as the Baro-Bhuyans.[26][27] Bengal accounted for 40% of overall Dutch imports from Asia, for example, including more than 50% of textiles and around 80% of silks.[16] Bengal's economy have waved the period of proto-industrialization.[28]

By the 18th century, the Bengal emerged as a quasi-independent state, under the Nawabs of Bengal, before being conquered by the British East India Company at the Battle of Plassey in 1757, which directly contributed to the Industrial Revolution in Britain[29][30][31] (such as textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution), but led to deindustrialization in Bengal.[29][30][31][22] The region was later administered by the United Kingdom as part of the Bengal Presidency (1757–1905; 1912–1947) and Eastern Bengal and Assam Province (1905–1912) in British India. During British India, notable personalities of Bengal Renaissance played a pivotal role in the anti-colonial movement. Bengal had the largest GDP in the British Raj.[32] In 1947, the Bengal Legislative Council and the Bengal Legislative Assembly voted on the Partition of Bengal, while a referendum caused the Sylhet region to join East Bengal. The area became part of the Dominion of Pakistan and was renamed East Pakistan. Beginning with the Bengali Language Movement in 1952, the pro-democracy movement in East Pakistan thrived on Bengali nationalism, resulting in the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971 and the creation of the new country Bangladesh.

Bangladeshis include people from a range of ethnic groups and religions. Bengalis, who speak the official Bengali language, make up 98% of the population.[2][3] The politically dominant Bengali Muslims make the nation the world's fourth largest Muslim-majority country. While recognising Islam as the country's established religion, the constitution upholds secularism as a fundamental state policy and grants freedom of religion to everybody.[33][34] A middle power,[35] Bangladesh is a unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional republic in the Westminster tradition. The country is divided into eight administrative divisions and sixty-four districts. It is one of the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, and is listed among the Next Eleven countries. It has one of the fastest real GDP growth rates in the world. Its gross domestic product ranks 39th largest in the world in terms of market exchange rates and 29th in purchasing power parity. Its per capita income ranks 143th and 136th in two measures. In the field of human development, it made substantial progress. The country continues to face challenging problems, including poverty, corruption, terrorism, illiteracy, and inadequate public healthcare. Bangladesh is a member of the UN, the WTO, the Commonwealth of Nations, the IMF, the World Bank, the ADB, the OIC, the IDB, the SAARC, the BIMSTEC and the IMCTC.

Etymology

The etymology of Bangladesh (Country of Bengal) can be traced to the early 20th century, when Bengali patriotic songs, such as Namo Namo Namo Bangladesh Momo by Kazi Nazrul Islam and Aaji Bangladesher Hridoy by Rabindranath Tagore, used the term.[36] The term Bangladesh was often written as two words, Bangla Desh, in the past. Starting in the 1950s, Bengali nationalists used the term in political rallies in East Pakistan. The term Bangla is a major name for both the Bengal region and the Bengali language. The earliest known usage of the term is the Nesari plate in 805 AD. The term Vangaladesa is found in 11th-century South Indian records.[37][38]

The term gained official status during the Sultanate of Bengal in the 14th century.[39][40] Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah proclaimed himself as the first "Shah of Bangala" in 1342.[39] The word Bangla became the most common name for the region during the Islamic period. The Portuguese referred to the region as Bengala in the 16th century.[41]

The exact origin of the word Bangla is unknown, though it is believed to come from "Vanga", an ancient kingdom and geopolitical division on the Ganges delta in the Indian subcontinent. It was located in southern Bengal, with the core region including present-day southern West Bengal (India) and southwestern Bangladesh. The suffix "al" came to be added to it from the fact that the ancient rajahs of this land raised mounds of earth 10 feet high and 20 in breadth in lowlands at the foot of the hills which were called "al". From this suffix added to the Bung, the name Bengal arose and gained currency".[42][43] This is also mentioned in Ghulam Husain Salim's Riyaz-us-Salatin.[44]

Other theories point to a Bronze Age proto-Dravidian tribe,[45] the Austric word "Bonga" (Sun god),[46] and the Iron Age Vanga Kingdom.[46] The Indo-Aryan suffix Desh is derived from the Sanskrit word deśha, which means "land" or "country". Hence, the name Bangladesh means "Land of Bengal" or "Country of Bengal".[38]

Other Languages
адыгабзэ: Бангладеш
Afrikaans: Bangladesj
Alemannisch: Bangladesch
አማርኛ: ባንግላዴሽ
Ænglisc: Bængladesc
العربية: بنغلاديش
aragonés: Bangladesh
armãneashti: Bangladesh
অসমীয়া: বাংলাদেশ
asturianu: Bangladex
Avañe'ẽ: Vangyladẽ
Aymar aru: Banladish
azərbaycanca: Banqladeş
تۆرکجه: بنقلادش
বাংলা: বাংলাদেশ
Bahasa Banjar: Bangladesh
Bân-lâm-gú: Bangladesh
башҡортса: Бангладеш
беларуская: Бангладэш
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Банглядэш
भोजपुरी: बांग्लादेश
Bikol Central: Banglades
Bislama: Bangladesh
български: Бангладеш
Boarisch: Bangladesch
bosanski: Bangladeš
brezhoneg: Bangladesh
буряад: Бангладеш
català: Bangla Desh
Чӑвашла: Бангладеш
Cebuano: Bangladesh
čeština: Bangladéš
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Bangladesh
chiShona: Bangladesh
chiTumbuka: Bangladesh
corsu: Bangladesh
Cymraeg: Bangladesh
dansk: Bangladesh
davvisámegiella: Bangladesh
Deutsch: Bangladesch
ދިވެހިބަސް: ބަންގާޅު
dolnoserbski: Bangladeš
डोटेली: बङ्गलादेश
eesti: Bangladesh
Ελληνικά: Μπανγκλαντές
español: Bangladés
Esperanto: Bangladeŝo
estremeñu: Bangladesh
euskara: Bangladesh
فارسی: بنگلادش
Fiji Hindi: Bangladesh
føroyskt: Bangladesj
français: Bangladesh
Frysk: Bangladesj
furlan: Bangladesh
Gagauz: Bangladeş
Gàidhlig: Bangladais
galego: Bangladesh
ГӀалгӀай: Бангладеш
贛語: 孟加拉
Gĩkũyũ: Bangladesh
ગુજરાતી: બાંગ્લાદેશ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: बांगलादेश
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Bangladesh
한국어: 방글라데시
Hausa: Bangladesh
Hawaiʻi: Banagaladesa
հայերեն: Բանգլադեշ
हिन्दी: बांग्लादेश
hornjoserbsce: Bangladeš
hrvatski: Bangladeš
Ilokano: Banglades
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: বাংলাদেশ
Bahasa Indonesia: Bangladesh
interlingua: Bangladesh
Interlingue: Bangladesh
isiZulu: Bangladesh
íslenska: Bangladess
italiano: Bangladesh
עברית: בנגלדש
kalaallisut: Bangladesh
Kapampangan: Banglades
къарачай-малкъар: Бангладеш
ქართული: ბანგლადეში
kaszëbsczi: Bangladesz
қазақша: Бангладеш
kernowek: Bangladesh
Kinyarwanda: Bangaladeshi
Kiswahili: Bangladesh
Kongo: Bangladesh
Kreyòl ayisyen: Bangladèch
kurdî: Bangladeş
Кыргызча: Бангладеш
Ladino: Bangladesh
لۊری شومالی: بنگلادش
Latina: Bangladesa
latviešu: Bangladeša
Lëtzebuergesch: Bangladesch
лезги: Бангладеш
lietuvių: Bangladešas
Ligure: Bangladesh
Limburgs: Bangladesh
lingála: Bángaladɛ́si
Lingua Franca Nova: Bangladex
Livvinkarjala: Bangladeš
la .lojban.: begygu'e
lumbaart: Bangladesh
magyar: Banglades
मैथिली: बंगलादेश
македонски: Бангладеш
മലയാളം: ബംഗ്ലാദേശ്
Malti: Bangladexx
Māori: Pākaratēhi
მარგალური: ბანგლადეში
مازِرونی: بنگلادش
Bahasa Melayu: Bangladesh
Minangkabau: Bangladesh
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Bangladesh
монгол: Бангладеш
Nāhuatl: Bangladex
Dorerin Naoero: Bangradet
Nederlands: Bangladesh
नेपाली: बङ्गलादेश
नेपाल भाषा: बंगलादेश
нохчийн: Бангладеш
Nordfriisk: Bangladesch
Norfuk / Pitkern: Bangladash
norsk: Bangladesh
norsk nynorsk: Bangladesh
Novial: Bangladesh
occitan: Bangladèsh
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Bangladesh
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬੰਗਲਾਦੇਸ਼
پنجابی: بنگلہ دیش
Papiamentu: Bangladesh
Patois: Banggladesh
ភាសាខ្មែរ: បង់ក្លាដែស្ស
Piemontèis: Bangladesh
Tok Pisin: Bangladesh
Plattdüütsch: Bangladesch
polski: Bangladesz
português: Bangladesh
Qaraqalpaqsha: Bangladesh
qırımtatarca: Bangladeş
română: Bangladesh
rumantsch: Bangladesch
Runa Simi: Banladish
русиньскый: Банґладеш
русский: Бангладеш
саха тыла: Баҥладеш
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟᱫᱮᱥ
संस्कृतम्: बाङ्गलादेशः
Scots: Bangladesh
Seeltersk: Bangladesch
sicilianu: Bangladesci
Simple English: Bangladesh
SiSwati: IBhangladeshi
slovenčina: Bangladéš
slovenščina: Bangladeš
ślůnski: Bangladesz
Soomaaliga: Bangladesh
کوردی: بەنگلادێش
српски / srpski: Бангладеш
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Bangladeš
ၽႃႇသႃႇတႆး : ပၢင်းၵလႃးတဵသျ်ႉ
Basa Sunda: Bangladés
suomi: Bangladesh
svenska: Bangladesh
Tagalog: Bangladesh
Taqbaylit: Bangladec
tarandíne: Bangladesh
татарча/tatarça: Бангладеш
తెలుగు: బంగ్లాదేశ్
tetun: Bangladexe
ትግርኛ: ባንግላደሽ
тоҷикӣ: Банглодеш
Tshivenda: Bangladesh
Türkçe: Bangladeş
Türkmençe: Bangladeş
удмурт: Бангладеш
українська: Бангладеш
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: بانگلادېش
Vahcuengh: Bangladesh
vèneto: Bangladesh
vepsän kel’: Bangladeš
Tiếng Việt: Bangladesh
Volapük: Bangladejän
Võro: Bangladesh
文言: 孟加拉國
Winaray: Bangladesh
Wolof: Banglaades
吴语: 孟加拉国
Xitsonga: Bangladesh
ייִדיש: באנגלאדעש
粵語: 孟加拉國
Zazaki: Bengladeş
Zeêuws: Bangladesh
žemaitėška: Bangladešos
中文: 孟加拉国