Bangladesh

People's Republic of Bangladesh

  • গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ (Bengali)
  • Gônoprojatontri Bangladesh
Anthem: "Amar Sonar Bangla" (Bengali)
"My Golden Bengal"


March: "Notuner Gaan"
"The Song of Youth"[1]
Location of Bangladesh
Location of Bangladesh
Capital
and largest city
Dhaka
23°42′N 90°21′E / 23°42′N 90°21′E / 23.700; 90.350
Official languagesBengali[2]
Ethnic groups
(2011[3])
Religion
(2011[4])
Demonym(s)Bangladeshi
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Abdul Hamid
Sheikh Hasina
Shirin Chaudhury
Syed Mahmud Hossain
LegislatureJatiya Sangsad
14 August 1947
14 October 1955
26 March 1971
16 December 1971
4 November 1972
Area
• Total
147,570[5] km2 (56,980 sq mi) (92nd)
• Water (%)
6.4
Population
• 2016 estimate
162,951,560[6] (8th)
• 2011 census
149,772,364[7] (8th)
• Density
1,106/km2 (2,864.5/sq mi) (10th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$751.949 billion[8] (31st)
• Per capita
$4,561[8] (139th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$285.817 billion[8] (43rd)
• Per capita
$1,751[8] (143th)
Gini (2017)Negative increase 32.4[9]
medium · 19
HDI (2018)Increase 0.608[10]
medium · 136th
CurrencyTaka () (BDT)
Time zoneUTC+6 (BST)
Date format
  • dd-mm-yyyy
  • BS দদ-মম-বববব (CE−594)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+880
ISO 3166 codeBD
Internet TLD.bd
bangladesh.gov.bd

Bangladesh (ŋ-/; Bengali: বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh [ˈbaŋladeʃ] (About this soundlisten), lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ Gônoprojatontri Bangladesh), is a country in South Asia. It shares land borders with India and Myanmar (Burma).The country's maritime territory in the Bay of Bengal is roughly equal to the size of its land area.[11] Bangladesh is the world's eighth most populous country. Dhaka is its capital and largest city, followed by Chittagong, which has the country's largest port. Bangladesh forms the largest and easternmost part of the Bengal region.[12] Bangladeshis include people from a range of ethnic groups and religions. Bengalis, who speak the official Bengali language, make up 98% of the population.[2][3] The politically dominant Bengali Muslims make the nation the world's third largest Muslim-majority country. Islam is the official religion of Bangladesh.[13][14]

Most of Bangladesh is covered by the Bengal Delta, the largest delta on Earth. The country has 700 rivers and 8,046 km (5,000 mi) of inland waterways. Highlands with evergreen forests are found in the northeastern and southeastern regions of the country. Bangladesh has many islands and a coral reef. The second longest unbroken sea beach of the world, Cox's Bazar Beach, is located in the southeast. It is home to the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world. The country's biodiversity includes a vast array of plant and wildlife, including endangered Bengal tigers, the national animal.

The Greeks and Romans identified the region as Gangaridai, a powerful kingdom of the historical Indian subcontinent, in the 3rd century BCE. Archaeological research has unearthed several ancient cities in Bangladesh, which enjoyed international trade links for millennia.[15] The Bengal Sultanate and Mughal Bengal transformed the region into a cosmopolitan Islamic imperial power between the 14th and 18th centuries. The region was home to many principalities that made use of their inland naval prowess.[16][17] It was also a notable center of the global muslin and silk trade. As part of British India, the region was influenced by the Bengali renaissance and played an important role in anti-colonial movements. The Partition of British India made East Bengal a part of the Dominion of Pakistan; and renamed it as East Pakistan. The region witnessed the Bengali Language Movement in 1952 and the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.[18] After independence was achieved, a parliamentary republic was established. A presidential government was in place between 1975 and 1990, followed by a return to parliamentary democracy. The country continues to face challenges in the areas of poverty, education, healthcare, and corruption.

Bangladesh is a middle power and a developing nation. Listed as one of the Next Eleven, its economy ranks 43rd in terms of nominal gross domestic product and 29th in terms of purchasing power parity. It is one of the largest textile exporters in the world. Its major trading partners are the European Union, the United States, China, India, Japan, Malaysia and Singapore. With its strategically vital location between South, East and Southeast Asia, Bangladesh is an important promoter of regional connectivity and cooperation. It is a founding member of SAARC, BIMSTEC, the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Forum for Regional Cooperation and the Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal Initiative. It is also a member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Commonwealth of Nations, the Developing 8 Countries, the OIC, the Indian-Ocean Rim Association, the Non Aligned Movement, the Group of 77 and the World Trade Organization. Bangladesh is one of the largest contributors to United Nations peacekeeping forces.

Etymology

The etymology of Bangladesh (Country of Bengal) can be traced to the early 20th century, when Bengali patriotic songs, such as Namo Namo Namo Bangladesh Momo by Kazi Nazrul Islam and Aaji Bangladesher Hridoy by Rabindranath Tagore, used the term.[19] The term Bangladesh was often written as two words, Bangla Desh, in the past. Starting in the 1950s, Bengali nationalists used the term in political rallies in East Pakistan. The term Bangla is a major name for both the Bengal region and the Bengali language. The earliest known usage of the term is the Nesari plate in 805 AD. The term Vangaladesa is found in 11th-century South Indian records.[20][21]

The term gained official status during the Sultanate of Bengal in the 14th century.[22][23] Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah proclaimed himself as the first "Shah of Bangala" in 1342.[22] The word Bangla became the most common name for the region during the Islamic period. The Portuguese referred to the region as Bengala in the 16th century.[24]

The origins of the term Bangla are unclear, with theories pointing to a Bronze Age proto-Dravidian tribe,[25] the Austric word "Bonga" (Sun god),[26] and the Iron Age Vanga Kingdom.[26] The Indo-Aryan suffix Desh is derived from the Sanskrit word deśha, which means "land" or "country". Hence, the name Bangladesh means "Land of Bengal" or "Country of Bengal".[21]

Other Languages
адыгабзэ: Бангладеш
Afrikaans: Bangladesj
Alemannisch: Bangladesch
አማርኛ: ባንግላዴሽ
Ænglisc: Bængladesc
العربية: بنغلاديش
aragonés: Bangladesh
armãneashti: Bangladesh
অসমীয়া: বাংলাদেশ
asturianu: Bangladex
Avañe'ẽ: Vangyladẽ
azərbaycanca: Banqladeş
تۆرکجه: بنقلادش
বাংলা: বাংলাদেশ
Bahasa Banjar: Bangladesh
Bân-lâm-gú: Bangladesh
башҡортса: Бангладеш
беларуская: Бангладэш
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Банглядэш
भोजपुरी: बांग्लादेश
Bikol Central: Banglades
Bislama: Bangladesh
български: Бангладеш
Boarisch: Bangladesch
bosanski: Bangladeš
brezhoneg: Bangladesh
буряад: Бангладеш
català: Bangla Desh
Чӑвашла: Бангладеш
Cebuano: Bangladesh
čeština: Bangladéš
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Bangladesh
chiShona: Bangladesh
chiTumbuka: Bangladesh
corsu: Bangladesh
Cymraeg: Bangladesh
dansk: Bangladesh
davvisámegiella: Bangladesh
Deutsch: Bangladesch
ދިވެހިބަސް: ބަންގާޅު
dolnoserbski: Bangladeš
डोटेली: बंगलादेश
eesti: Bangladesh
Ελληνικά: Μπανγκλαντές
español: Bangladés
Esperanto: Bangladeŝo
estremeñu: Bangladesh
euskara: Bangladesh
فارسی: بنگلادش
Fiji Hindi: Bangladesh
føroyskt: Bangladesj
français: Bangladesh
Frysk: Bangladesj
furlan: Bangladesh
Gagauz: Bangladeş
Gàidhlig: Bangladais
galego: Bangladesh
ГӀалгӀай: Бангладеш
贛語: 孟加拉
Gĩkũyũ: Bangladesh
ગુજરાતી: બાંગ્લાદેશ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: बांगलादेश
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Bangladesh
한국어: 방글라데시
Hausa: Bangladash
Hawaiʻi: Banagaladesa
հայերեն: Բանգլադեշ
हिन्दी: बांग्लादेश
hornjoserbsce: Bangladeš
hrvatski: Bangladeš
Ilokano: Banglades
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: বাংলাদেশ
Bahasa Indonesia: Bangladesh
interlingua: Bangladesh
Interlingue: Bangladesh
isiZulu: Bangladesh
íslenska: Bangladess
italiano: Bangladesh
עברית: בנגלדש
Basa Jawa: Banggaladésa
kalaallisut: Bangladesh
Kapampangan: Banglades
къарачай-малкъар: Бангладеш
ქართული: ბანგლადეში
kaszëbsczi: Bangladesz
қазақша: Бангладеш
kernowek: Bangladesh
Kinyarwanda: Bangaladeshi
Kiswahili: Bangladesh
Kongo: Bangladesh
Kreyòl ayisyen: Bangladèch
kurdî: Bangladeş
Кыргызча: Бангладеш
Ladino: Bangladesh
لۊری شومالی: بنگلادش
Latina: Bangladesa
latviešu: Bangladeša
Lëtzebuergesch: Bangladesch
лезги: Бангладеш
lietuvių: Bangladešas
Ligure: Bangladesh
Limburgs: Bangladesh
lingála: Bángaladɛ́si
Lingua Franca Nova: Bangladex
Livvinkarjala: Bangladeš
la .lojban.: begygu'e
lumbaart: Bangladesh
magyar: Banglades
मैथिली: बंगलादेश
македонски: Бангладеш
മലയാളം: ബംഗ്ലാദേശ്
Malti: Bangladexx
Māori: Pākaratēhi
მარგალური: ბანგლადეში
مازِرونی: بنگلادش
Bahasa Melayu: Bangladesh
Baso Minangkabau: Bangladesh
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Bangladesh
монгол: Бангладеш
Nāhuatl: Bangladex
Dorerin Naoero: Bangradet
Nederlands: Bangladesh
नेपाली: बङ्गलादेश
नेपाल भाषा: बंगलादेश
нохчийн: Бангладеш
Nordfriisk: Bangladesch
Norfuk / Pitkern: Bangladash
norsk: Bangladesh
norsk nynorsk: Bangladesh
Novial: Bangladesh
occitan: Bangladèsh
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Bangladesh
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬੰਗਲਾਦੇਸ਼
پنجابی: بنگلہ دیش
Papiamentu: Bangladesh
پښتو: بنگلدېش
Patois: Banggladesh
ភាសាខ្មែរ: បង់ក្លាដែស្ស
Piemontèis: Bangladesh
Tok Pisin: Bangladesh
Plattdüütsch: Bangladesch
polski: Bangladesz
português: Bangladesh
Qaraqalpaqsha: Bangladesh
qırımtatarca: Bangladeş
română: Bangladesh
rumantsch: Bangladesch
Runa Simi: Banladish
русиньскый: Банґладеш
русский: Бангладеш
саха тыла: Баҥладеш
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟᱫᱮᱥ
संस्कृतम्: बाङ्गलादेशः
Scots: Bangladesh
Seeltersk: Bangladesch
sicilianu: Bangladesci
Simple English: Bangladesh
SiSwati: IBhangladeshi
slovenčina: Bangladéš
slovenščina: Bangladeš
ślůnski: Bangladesz
Soomaaliga: Bangladesh
کوردی: بەنگلادێش
српски / srpski: Бангладеш
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Bangladeš
ၽႃႇသႃႇတႆး : ပၢင်းၵလႃးတဵသျ်ႉ
Basa Sunda: Bangladés
suomi: Bangladesh
svenska: Bangladesh
Tagalog: Bangladesh
Taqbaylit: Bangladec
tarandíne: Bangladesh
татарча/tatarça: Бангладеш
తెలుగు: బంగ్లాదేశ్
tetun: Bangladexe
ትግርኛ: ባንግላደሽ
тоҷикӣ: Банглодеш
Tshivenda: Bangladesh
Türkçe: Bangladeş
Türkmençe: Bangladeş
удмурт: Бангладеш
українська: Бангладеш
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: بانگلادېش
Vahcuengh: Bangladesh
vèneto: Bangladesh
vepsän kel’: Bangladeš
Tiếng Việt: Bangladesh
Volapük: Bangladejän
Võro: Bangladesh
文言: 孟加拉國
Winaray: Bangladesh
Wolof: Banglaades
吴语: 孟加拉国
Xitsonga: Bangladesh
ייִדיש: באנגלאדעש
粵語: 孟加拉國
Zazaki: Bengladeş
Zeêuws: Bangladesh
žemaitėška: Bangladešos
中文: 孟加拉国