Bandung

Bandung
City of Bandung
Kota Bandung
Other transcription(s)
 • Sundaneseᮊᮧᮒ ᮘᮔ᮪ᮓᮥᮀ
Clockwise, from top: Gedung Sate, Grand Mosque of Bandung, Bandung at night, Pasupati Bridge, Merdeka Building
Clockwise, from top: Gedung Sate, Grand Mosque of Bandung, Bandung at night, Pasupati Bridge, Merdeka Building
Flag of Bandung
Flag
Coat of arms of Bandung
Coat of arms
Nicknames: 
Kota Kembang (City of Flowers)
Parijs van Java (Dutch) (Paris of Java)
Motto(s): 
Clean, Prosperous, Devout, Friendly
Location within West Java
Location within West Java
Bandung is located in Java
Bandung
Bandung
Location in Java and Indonesia
Bandung is located in Indonesia
Bandung
Bandung
Bandung (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 6°54′43″S 107°36′35″E / 6°54′43″S 107°36′35″E / -6.9120; 107.6097Sundanese
Javanese
Chinese
Arab
Korean
Indian
 • Religion[1]Islam 91.70%
Protestantism 5.36%
Catholicism 1.95%
Buddhism 0.49%
Hinduism 0.09%
Confucianism 0.03%
Others 0.02%
Time zoneUTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)
Postcodes
401xx, 402xx, 406xx
Area code(+62) 22
Registration plateD
HDIIncrease 0.801 (very high)
Largest Official Portal

Bandung (ŋ/) is the capital of West Java province in Indonesia. Based on 2015 census, it is Indonesia's fourth most populous city after Jakarta, Surabaya, and Bekasi with over 2.5 million inhabitants. Greater Bandung is the country's third-largest metropolitan with over 8.5 million inhabitants.[2] Located 768 metres (2,520 feet) above sea level, approximately 140 kilometres (87 miles) southeast of Jakarta, Bandung has cooler year-round temperatures than most other Indonesian cities. The city lies on a river basin surrounded by volcanic mountains that provides a natural defence system, which was the primary reason for the Dutch East Indies government's plan to move the capital from Batavia (modern-day Jakarta) to Bandung.

The Dutch first established tea plantations around the mountains in the 18th century, and a road was constructed to connect the plantation area to the colonial capital Batavia (180 kilometres (112 miles) to the northwest). The Dutch inhabitants of Bandung demanded the establishment of a municipality (gemeente), which was granted in 1906, and Bandung gradually developed into a resort city for plantation owners. Luxurious hotels, restaurants, cafés, and European boutiques were opened, leading the city to be nicknamed Parijs van Java (Dutch: "The Paris of Java").

After Indonesia declared independence in 1945, the city experienced rapid development and urbanisation, transforming it from an idyllic town into a dense 16,500 people/km2 (per square kilometre) metropolitan area, and a living space for over 8 million people. New skyscrapers, high-rise buildings, bridges, and gardens have been constructed. Natural resources have been heavily exploited, particularly by conversion of the protected upland area into highland villas and real estate. Although the city has encountered many problems (ranging from waste disposal and floods to a complicated traffic system resulting from a lack of road infrastructure), it still attracts large numbers of tourists, weekend sightseers, and migrants from other parts of Indonesia. The city has won a 2017 regional environmental sustainability award for having the cleanest air among other major cities in ASEAN.[3] The city has also become known as a Smart City, leveraging technology to improve government services, including social media, that alert the authorities to issues such as floods or traffic jams.[4][5]

The first Asian-African Conference, also known as the Bandung Conference, was hosted in Bandung by President Sukarno in 1955. Redevelopment of the Bandung international airport (BDO) was completed in 2016. To improve infrastructure, the construction of a Jakarta-Bandung High-speed rail started in 2016, with projected completion in 2020, and Bandung Metro Kapsul, a type of indigenous Automated People Mover (APM) is being redefined.[6] The new second airport, Bandung Kertajati International Airport, opened in June 2018.

History

Gedung Merdeka (Merdeka Building) during the Asian-African Conference in 1955

The official name of the city during the colonial Dutch East Indies period was Bandoeng. The earliest reference to the area dates back to 1488, although archaeological findings suggest a type of Homo erectus species had long previously lived on the banks of the Cikapundung River and around the old lake of Bandung.[7] During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Dutch East Indies Company (VOC) established plantations in the Bandung area. In 1786, a supply road connecting Batavia (now Jakarta), Bogor, Cianjur, Bandung, Sumedang and Cirebon was constructed. In 1809, Napoleon Bonaparte, French Emperor and conqueror of much of Europe including the Netherlands and its colonies, ordered the Dutch Indies Governor H.W. Daendels to improve the defensive systems of Java to protect against the British in India. Daendels built a road, stretching approximately 1,000 km (620 mi) from the west to the east coast of Java, passing through Bandung.[8][9] In 1810, the road was laid down in Bandung and was named De Groote Postweg (or the 'Great Post Road'), the present-day location of Jalan Asia-Afrika. Under Daendels' orders, R. A. Wiranatakusumah II, the Chief Administrator of the Bandung regency at that time, moved the office from Krapyak, in the south, to a place near a pair of holy city wells (sumur Bandung), the present-day site of the city square (alun-alun). He built his dalem (palace), masjid agung (the grand mosque) and pendopo (public-official meeting place) in the classical Sundanese orientation,[10] with the pendopo facing Tangkuban Perahu mountain, which was believed to have a mystical ambience.

In 1880, the first major railroad between Batavia and Bandung was completed,[11] boosting light industry in Bandung. Chinese flocked into the city to help run facilities, services and as vendors. The area adjacent to the train station is still recognisable as the old Chinatown district. In 1906, Bandung was given the status of gemeente (municipality), and then twenty years later, stadsgemeente (city municipality).

Beginning of time the early 1920s, the Dutch East Indies government made plans to move their capital from Batavia to Bandung. Accordingly, during this decade, the Dutch colonial government commenced construction of military barracks, the central government building (Gouvernments Bedrijven, the present-day Gedung Sate) and other government buildings. However, this plan was cut short by World War II, after which the Dutch were not able to re-establish their colony due to the Indonesian Declaration of Independence.

The fertile area of the Parahyangan Mountains surrounding Bandung supports productive tea plantations. In the nineteenth century, Franz Junghuhn introduced the cinchona (kina) plant.[12] With its cooler elevated landscape, surrounded by major plantations, Bandung became an exclusive European resort area.[13] Wealthy plantation owners visited the city on weekends, attracting ladies and business people from the capital, Batavia. Jalan Braga grew into a promenade street with cafés, restaurants and boutique shops. Two art-deco style hotels, Savoy Homann and Preanger, were built in the vicinity of the Concordia Society, a clubhouse for the wealthy with a large ballroom and a theatre.[11]

After Indonesian independence in 1945, Bandung was designated as the capital of West Java province. During the Indonesian National Revolution, some of the most massive battles occurred in and around Bandung. Dutch troops were virtually absent in Java at the end of World War II. To assist the restoration of Dutch sovereignty, the British took a military hold on Java's major cities, and the British military commander set an ultimatum for the Indonesian combatants in Bandung to leave the city. In response, on 24 March 1946, much of the southern part of Bandung was deliberately set alight as the combatants left; an event known as Bandung Lautan Api or the 'Bandung Sea of Fire'.[14]

In 1955, the first Asian-African Conference, also known as the Bandung Conference, was hosted in Bandung by President Sukarno, and attended by the heads of states representing twenty-nine independent countries from Asia and Africa.[15] The conference venue was at the Gedung Merdeka, the former Concordia Society building. The conference announced ten points of declaration for the promotion of world peace and opposition against colonialism and is known as the Declaration of Bandung. This was followed by a wave of nationalism and decolonisation movements around the globe which remapped world politics.[16] The conference was also the first international conference of people of colour in history.[17] In his book The Color Curtain, Richard Wright claims that there was an epic meaning of the conference for people of colour around the world.[17]

In 1987, the city boundary was expanded by the 'Greater Bandung' (Bandung Raya) plan; with the relocation of higher concentration development zones outside the city in an attempt to dilute population density in the old city. During this development, the city core was often uprooted, with old buildings torn down, lot sizes regrouped and rezoned, changing idyllic residential areas to commercial zones with bustling chain supermarkets, malls, banks and upscale developments.[13]

In 2005, an Asian-African Conference was partly held in Bandung, attended by world leaders such as Indonesian President Susilo B. Yudhoyono, President of China Hu Jintao, Prime Minister of India Manmohan Singh, President of South Africa Thabo Mbeki, President of Nigeria Obasanjo, and other luminaries.[18]

Other Languages
Acèh: Bandung
Afrikaans: Bandoeng
العربية: باندونغ
azərbaycanca: Bandunq
تۆرکجه: باندونگ
বাংলা: বানদুং
Banjar: Kuta Bandung
Bân-lâm-gú: Bandung
Basa Banyumasan: Kota Bandung
беларуская: Бандунг
български: Бандунг
буряад: Бандунг
català: Bandung
čeština: Bandung
Cymraeg: Bandung
dansk: Bandung
Deutsch: Bandung
eesti: Bandung
Ελληνικά: Μπαντούνγκ
español: Bandung
Esperanto: Bandungo
euskara: Bandung
فارسی: باندونگ
français: Bandung
Frysk: Bandûng
galego: Bandung
한국어: 반둥
Hausa: Bandung
հայերեն: Բանդունգ
हिन्दी: बानदुंग
hrvatski: Bandung
Bahasa Hulontalo: Kota Bandung
Ido: Bandung
Bahasa Indonesia: Kota Bandung
italiano: Bandung
עברית: באנדונג
kalaallisut: Bandung
ქართული: ბანდუნგი
қазақша: Бандуң
Kiswahili: Bandung
Кыргызча: Бандунг шаары
Latina: Bandung
latviešu: Banduna
lietuvių: Bandungas
magyar: Bandung
Malagasy: Kota Bandung
Māori: Bandung
मराठी: बांडुंग
Bahasa Melayu: Bandung
Minangkabau: Kota Bandung
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဘန်ဒေါင်းမြို့
Nederlands: Bandung
нохчийн: Бандунг
norsk: Bandung
norsk nynorsk: Bandung
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Bandung
پنجابی: بنڈونگ
polski: Bandung
português: Bandung
română: Bandung
русский: Бандунг
Scots: Bandung
shqip: Bandung
slovenščina: Bandung
српски / srpski: Бандунг
suomi: Bandung
svenska: Bandung
Tagalog: Bandung
தமிழ்: பண்டுங்
Türkçe: Bandung
українська: Бандунг
اردو: بندونگ
vepsän kel’: Bandung
Tiếng Việt: Bandung
Winaray: Bandung
吴语: 万隆
粵語: 萬隆
中文: 萬隆