Baldwin II of Jerusalem

Baldwin II
Balduin2.jpg
King of Jerusalem
Reign1118–1131
Coronation14 April 1118
PredecessorBaldwin I
SuccessorsFulk and Melisende
Count of Edessa
Reign1100–1118
PredecessorBaldwin I
SuccessorJoscelin I
Died21 August 1131
Jerusalem
BurialChurch of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem
SpouseMorphia of Melitene
IssueMelisende, Queen of Jerusalem
Alice, Princess of Antioch
Hodierna, Countess of Tripoli
Iveta, Abbess of Bethany
HouseHouse of Rethel
FatherHugh I, Count of Rethel
MotherMelisende of Monthléry

Baldwin II, also known as Baldwin of Bourcq or Bourg (French: Baudouin; died 21 August 1131), was Count of Edessa from 1100 to 1118, and King of Jerusalem from 1118 until his death. He accompanied his cousins, Godfrey of Bouillon, and Baldwin of Boulogne, to the Holy Land during the First Crusade. He succeeded Baldwin of Boulogne in the County of Edessa when his cousin left the county for Jerusalem. He fell into captivity in the Battle of Harran in 1104. He was held first by Sökmen of Mardin, then by Jikirmish of Mosul, and finally by Jawali Saqawa. During his captivity, Tancred, the Crusader ruler of the Principality of Antioch, and Tancred's cousin, Richard of Salerno governed Edessa.

Baldwin was ransomed by his cousin, Joscelin of Courtenay, Lord of Turbessel in the summer of 1108. Tancred tried to retain Edessa, but Bernard of Valence, the Latin Patriarch of Antioch, persuaded him to restore the country to Baldwin. Baldwin soon made an alliance with Jawali, but Tancred and his ally, Radwan of Aleppo, defeated them at Turbessel. Baldwin and Tancred were reconciled at an assembly of the crusader leaders near Tripoli in April 1109. Mawdud, the Atabeg of Mosul, and his successor, Aqsunqur al-Bursuqi, launched a series of campaigns against Edessa in the early 1110s, destroying the eastern regions of the country. Baldwin accused Joscelin of treason to seize the prosperous Turbessel from him in 1113 and captured the neighboring Armenian Lordships in 1116 and 1117.

Baldwin of Boulogne, who had been crowned the first King of Jerusalem, died on 2 July 1118. He bequeathed Jerusalem on his brother, Eustace III of Boulogne, stipulating that the throne was to be offered to Baldwin if Eustace failed to come to the Holy Land. Arnulf of Chocques, the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, and Joscelin of Courtenay, who held the largest fief in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, convinced their peers to elect Baldwin king. He took possession of most towns in the kingdom and gave Edessa to Joscelin. After the army of the Principality of Antioch was almost annihilated on 28 June 1119, Baldwin was elected Regent for the absent Bohemond II of Antioch. The frequent Seljuq invasions of Antioch forced him to spend most of his time in the principality, which caused discontent in Jerusalem. After Nur al-Daulak Balak captured him in April 1123, a group of noblemen offered the throne to Charles I, Count of Flanders, but Charles refused. During his absence, the Jerusalemite troops captured Tyre with the assistance of a Venetian fleet.

Early life

Baldwin was a younger son of Hugh I, Count of Rethel and Melisende of Monthléry.[1] He was closely related to the Lords of Courtenay and Le Puiset, and other noble families in the Ile-de-France.[2] He was also a kinsman of the brothers, Eustace III of Boulogne, Godfrey of Bouillon, and Baldwin of Boulogne, but the exact manner in which they were related is unknown.[1][3] Historian Alan V. Murray says, the primary sources suggest that their connection "was not particularly close", and Baldwin was most probably related to their mother, Ida of Lorraine.[4] Thomas Asbridge says that Baldwin was the Boulogne brothers' second cousin.[5]

He was the lord of Bourcq when he joined the army of Godfrey of Boulogne at the beginning of the First Crusade.[6] The army departed for the Holy Land on 15 August 1096, and reached Constantinople on 23 December.[7] The Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos urged the crusader leaders to take an oath fealty to him.[8] Godfrey of Bouillon appointed Baldwin, Conon of Montaigu and Geoffrey of Esch to represent him during a meeting with Alexios in January 1097.[9] After Godfrey and his principal commanders swore fealty to the emperor, the crusader army was transferred to Asia Minor in February.[10]

Baldwin of Boulogne and the Norman Tancred broke away from the main army to invade Cilicia around 15 September 1097.[11] Baldwin accompanied them in Boulogne's contingent.[12][13] He also participated in Boulogne's military campaigns against the Seljuq rulers of the fortresses in the plains near the river Euphrates.[14] After seizing Ravendel, Turbessel and Edessa, Boulogne established the first crusader state, the County of Edessa, in early 1098.[15][16]

Baldwin again joined the main crusader army, which was marching towards Jerusalem, near Tyre in late May 1099.[17] He and Tancred seized Bethlehem without fight, because the town was inhabited by local Christians.[18] Shortly after the crusaders laid siege to Jerusalem, on 13 June Baldwin and Tancred captured an old Muslim nobleman.[5] After he refused to convert to Christianity, Baldwin's soldiers beheaded him at the Tower of David to frighten the defenders of Jerusalem.[19] Jerusalem fell to the crusaders on 15 July.[20] Baldwin left Jerusalem in the retinue of Robert II, Count of Flanders, in late August.[21] Robert returned to Europe, but Baldwin remained in Syria.[22] Geoffrey of Bouillon died on 18 July 1100.[20] Baldwin of Boulogne decided to hurry to Jerusalem to take possession of Geoffrey's inheritance.[23]

Other Languages
Bahasa Indonesia: Baudouin II dari Yerusalem
latviešu: Balduīns II
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Balduin II od Jeruzalema
Türkçe: II. Baudouin
українська: Балдуїн II