Baghdad

Baghdad
بغداد
Capital city
Clockwise from top: Aerial view of the Green Zone; Al-Mustansiriya University; Al-Kadhimiya Mosque; Swords of Qadisiyah monument; and the National Museum of Iraq
Official seal of Baghdad
Seal
Nickname(s): 'The City of Peace' [1]
Baghdad is located in Iraq
Baghdad
Baghdad
Coordinates: 33°20′N 44°23′E / 33°20′N 44°23′E / 33.333; 44.383
Country   Iraq
Governorate Baghdad
Established 762 AD
Founded by Abu Jafar al-Mansur
Government
 • Type Mayor–council
 • Body Baghdad City Advisory Council
 •  Mayor Zekra Alwach
Area
 • Total 204.2 km2 (78.8 sq mi)
Elevation 34 m (112 ft)
Population
 • Estimate (2016) [note 1] 8,765,000
 • Rank 1st
Demonym(s) Baghdadi
Time zone Arabia Standard Time ( UTC+3)
 • Summer ( DST) No DST ( UTC)
Postal code 10001 to 10090
Website Mayoralty of Baghdad

Baghdad ( Arabic: بغداد‎‎, [baɣˈdaːd]) is the capital of Iraq. The population of Baghdad, as of 2016, is approximately 8,765,000,[ citation needed] [note 1] making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab world (after Cairo, Egypt), and the second largest city in Western Asia (after Tehran, Iran).

Located along the Tigris River, the city was founded in the 8th century and became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. Within a short time of its inception, Baghdad evolved into a significant cultural, commercial, and intellectual center for the Islamic world. This, in addition to housing several key academic institutions (e.g., House of Wisdom), garnered the city a worldwide reputation as the "Centre of Learning".

Throughout the High Middle Ages, Baghdad was considered to be the largest city in the world with an estimated population of 1,200,000–3,000,000 people.[ citation needed] The city was largely destroyed at the hands of the Mongol Empire in 1258, resulting in a decline that would linger through many centuries due to frequent plagues and multiple successive empires. With the recognition of Iraq as an independent state (formerly the British Mandate of Mesopotamia) in 1938, Baghdad gradually regained some of its former prominence as a significant center of Arab culture.

In contemporary times, the city has often faced severe infrastructural damage, most recently due to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and the subsequent Iraq War that lasted until December 2011. In recent years, the city has been frequently subjected to insurgency attacks. As of 2012, Baghdad was listed as one of the least hospitable places in the world to live, [5] and was ranked by Mercer as the worst of 221 major cities as measured by quality-of-life. [6]

Etymology

The name Baghdad is pre-Islamic. The site where the city of Baghdad developed has been populated for millennia. By the 8th century AD, several villages had developed there, including a Persian [7] [8] hamlet called Baghdad, the name which would come to be used for the Abbasid metropolis. [9]

The name is commonly thought to be of Indo-European origin, [10] specifically a Middle Persian [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] compound of Bagh ( Baghpahlavi.png) "god" and dād ( Dadpahlavi.png) "given by", [18] translating to "Bestowed by God" or "God's gift". In Old Persian the first element can be traced to boghu and is related to Slavic bog "god", [10] while the second can be traced to dadāti. [19] A similar term in Middle Persian is the name Mithradāt (Mihrdād in New Persian), known in English by its Hellenistic form Mithridates, meaning "gift of Mithra" (dāt is the more archaic form of dād, related to Latin dat and English donor [10]). There are a number of other locations in the wider region whose names are compounds of the word bagh, including Baghlan and Bagram in Afghanistan or a village called Bagh-šan in Iran. [20] The name of the town Baghdati in Georgia shares the same etymological origins. [21] [22]

A few authors have suggested older origins for the name; In particular, the names "Hudadu" and "Baghdadu" that existed in Old Babylonian, and the Babylonian Talmudic name of a place called "Baghdatha", [23] [24] which in turn has a close resemblance to the name Agade, the capital city of Sargon I. [25]

When the Abbasid caliph, al-Mansur, founded a completely new city for his capital, he chose the name Madinat al-Salaam or City of Peace. This was the official name on coins, weights, and other official usage, although the common people continued to use the old name. [26] [27] By the 11th century, "Baghdad" became almost the exclusive name for the world-renowned metropolis.

Other Languages
Acèh: Baghdad
Адыгэбзэ: Багдад
адыгабзэ: Багдад
Afrikaans: Bagdad
Alemannisch: Bagdad
አማርኛ: ባግዳድ
العربية: بغداد
aragonés: Bagdad
arpetan: Bagdad
অসমীয়া: বাগদাদ
asturianu: Baghdad
авар: Багъдад
azərbaycanca: Bağdad
تۆرکجه: بغداد
bamanankan: Baghdad
বাংলা: বাগদাদ
Bân-lâm-gú: Baghdad
башҡортса: Бағдад
беларуская: Горад Багдад
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Багдад
Bikol Central: Baghdad
български: Багдад
བོད་ཡིག: པ་ག་ཏ
bosanski: Bagdad
brezhoneg: Baghdad
буряад: Багдад
català: Bagdad
Чӑвашла: Пахтат
Cebuano: Baghdad
čeština: Bagdád
Chi-Chewa: Baghdad
chiShona: Baghdad
corsu: Baghdad
Cymraeg: Baghdad
dansk: Bagdad
Deutsch: Bagdad
ދިވެހިބަސް: ބަޣުދާދު
eesti: Bagdad
Ελληνικά: Βαγδάτη
español: Bagdad
Esperanto: Bagdado
estremeñu: Bagdad
euskara: Bagdad
فارسی: بغداد
Fiji Hindi: Baghdad
føroyskt: Bagdad
français: Bagdad
Frysk: Bagdad
Gaeilge: Bagdad
Gàidhlig: Baghdad
galego: Bagdad
Gĩkũyũ: Baghdad
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Baghdad
한국어: 바그다드
Հայերեն: Բաղդադ
हिन्दी: बग़दाद
hornjoserbsce: Bagdad
hrvatski: Bagdad
Ido: Bagdad
Ilokano: Baghdad
Bahasa Indonesia: Bagdad
interlingua: Bagdad (citate)
Interlingue: Bagdad
Ирон: Багдад
íslenska: Bagdad
italiano: Baghdad
עברית: בגדאד
Basa Jawa: Bagdad
kalaallisut: Baghdad
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಬಾಗ್ದಾದ್
ქართული: ბაღდადი
қазақша: Бағдат
kernowek: Baldak
Kiswahili: Baghdad
Kreyòl ayisyen: Bagdad
Kurdî: Bexda
Кыргызча: Багдад
Ladino: Bagdad
лезги: Багъдад
لۊری شومالی: بأغداد
Latina: Bagdatum
latviešu: Bagdāde
Lëtzebuergesch: Bagdad
lietuvių: Bagdadas
Limburgs: Bagdad
la .lojban.: bagdad
lumbaart: Baghdad
magyar: Bagdad
македонски: Багдад
Malagasy: Baghdad
മലയാളം: ബാഗ്ദാദ്
Māori: Baghdad
मराठी: बगदाद
მარგალური: ბაღდადი
مصرى: بغداد
مازِرونی: بغداد
Bahasa Melayu: Baghdad
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Baghdad
Mirandés: Bagdade
монгол: Багдад
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဘဂ္ဂဒက်မြို့
Dorerin Naoero: Baghdad
Nederlands: Bagdad
नेपाल भाषा: बग्दाद
日本語: バグダード
нохчийн: БагӀдад
Norfuk / Pitkern: Baagdad
norsk bokmål: Bagdad
norsk nynorsk: Bagdad
occitan: Bagdad
олык марий: Багдад
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ବାଗଦାଦ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Bagʻdod
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬਗ਼ਦਾਦ
پنجابی: بغداد
Papiamentu: Bagdad
پښتو: بغداد
Picard: Bagdad
Piemontèis: Baghdad
Tok Pisin: Bagdad
Plattdüütsch: Bagdad
polski: Bagdad
português: Bagdá
Qaraqalpaqsha: Bag'dad
qırımtatarca: Bağdad
română: Bagdad
Runa Simi: Bagdad
русиньскый: Баґдад
русский: Багдад
саха тыла: Багдад
sardu: Bagdad
Scots: Baghdad
Seeltersk: Bagdad
shqip: Bagdadi
sicilianu: Baghdad
සිංහල: බැග්ඩැඩ්
Simple English: Baghdad
slovenčina: Bagdad
slovenščina: Bagdad
ślůnski: Bagdad
Soomaaliga: Baqdaad
کوردی: بەغدا
српски / srpski: Багдад
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Bagdad
suomi: Bagdad
svenska: Bagdad
Tagalog: Baghdad
தமிழ்: பகுதாது
Taqbaylit: Beɣdad
tarandíne: Baghdad
татарча/tatarça: Багдад
тоҷикӣ: Бағдод
Türkçe: Bağdat
Türkmençe: Bagdat
Twi: Baghdad
українська: Багдад
اردو: بغداد
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: باغداد
vèneto: Bagdad
vepsän kel’: Bagdad
Tiếng Việt: Bagdad
Volapük: Bagdad
Võro: Bagdad
文言: 巴格達
Winaray: Baghdad
Wolof: Bagdad
ייִדיש: באגדאד
Yorùbá: Baghdad
粵語: 巴格達
Zazaki: Beğdad
žemaitėška: Bagdads
中文: 巴格达
डोटेली: बगदाद