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A bachelor's degree (from
An honours degree generally requires a higher academic standard than a pass degree, and in some systems an additional year of study beyond the non-honours bachelor's. Some countries, such as
In most African countries, the university systems follow the model of their former colonizing power. For example, the
Bachelor's degrees in Algerian universities are called "الليسانس" in Arabic or la licence in
Bachelor's degrees at the
In Morocco, a bachelor's degree is referred to as al-ʾijāzah (Arabic, French: licence). The course of study takes three years, which are further divided into two cycles. The first cycle comprises the first, or propaedeutic, year. After successfully completing their first two years, students can pursue either theoretical specialization (études fondamentales) or professional specialization (études professionnelles). The second cycle is one year after whose completion students receive the licence d'études fondamentales or the licence professionnelle. This academic degree system was introduced in September 2003.
University admission is extremely competitive, with attendant advantages and disadvantages. Nonetheless, it takes four to five years to complete a bachelor's degree. In cases of poor performance, the time limit is double the standard amount of time. For example, one may not study for more than 10 years for a five-year course. Students are normally asked to leave if they must take longer. Nigerian universities offer B.Sc., B.Tech. (usually from Universities of Technology), B.Arch. (six years), and other specialized undergraduate degrees, such as B.Eng. Science undergraduate degrees may require six months or a semester dedicated to SIWES (Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme) but it is usually mandatory for all engineering degrees. A semester for project work/thesis is required, not excluding course work, during the bachelor thesis in the final year. The classifications of degrees: first-class, second-class (upper and lower), third-class (with honours; i.e., B.Sc. (Hons)) and a pass (no honours). First- and second-class graduates are immediately eligible for advanced postgraduate degrees (i.e., M.Sc. and Ph.D.), but other classes may be required for an additional postgraduate diploma before such eligibility.
Furthermore, all graduating students are obliged to do the
Polytechnical schools (polytechnics) in Nigeria are not considered universities. They are mandated to educate technicians of high calibre; they offer the OND (ordinary national diploma) and the HND (higher national diploma). The polytechnics focus very strongly on practical technical training. The B.Sc. and HND are compared in engineering circles, but there are significant differences in training philosophies.
Honours degrees in Nigeria are differentiated only on the basis of performance. Honours degrees include the first-class degree, second-class degrees (upper and lower) and the third-class degree, but not the pass. All university students must do an independent research project which applies the knowledge obtained during the previous years of study.
The project work must be submitted in the semester before graduation and usually takes a significant number of points. Further course work is not precluded during the project work, but the courses are fewer and are at an advanced level. Project work is orally defended before the faculty and before peers. In the sciences and engineering a demonstration of the project is usually required. The exceptions are theoretical work, for which a media project is required.
In South Africa, an honours degree is an additional
In Tunisia, a bachelor's degree is referred to as al-ʾijāzah in Arabic, or la license in
In Kenya, university education is supported by the government,. A bachelor's degree is awarded to students who successfully complete a three to seven-year course depending on the area of study. For most degree programs, a research project and an internship period after which a report is written by the student is a must before the student is allowed to graduate. In 2012, a number of select colleges were upgraded to university status in a bid to increase the intake of students into degree programs.
In Bangladesh, universities and colleges award three- and four-year degrees (three-year degrees courses are called pass courses and four-year degree courses are called
The colonial link and the establishment of the
Bachelor's degrees in India normally take 3 years of study to complete, although courses like
Common bachelor's degrees and abbreviations:
For academic grading system in India, refer to this
Students usually start their Bachelor's after completing their Secondary School coursework(also known as +2) from a state or private board.
In Iran, students can study different undergraduate or postgraduate courses leading to a BSc or an MSc that is recognised and equivalent to similar qualifications given in other countries. There are basically two major type of universities in Iran, public universities and non-public universities. Most of non-public universities in Iran are part of Islamic Azad University, which have branches in all cities through Iran. In Iran, the public universities have considerably higher standing than the non-public ones and getting an admittance to one of them is more difficult. Students can also provide four years of education leading to a B.Sc.
In Indonesia, most of the current bachelor's degrees are domain-specific degrees. Therefore, there are probably more than 20 bachelor's degrees. For instance, S.Psi for Sarjana Psikologi (literally translated as "Bachelor of Psychology/B.Psy., B.A."), S.T. for Sarjana Teknik (literally translated as "Bachelor of Engineering"), S.Si. for Sarjana Sains (literally translated as "Bachelor of Science"), S.Farm for Sarjana Farmasi (literally translated as "Bachelor of Pharmacy"), S.E for Sarjana Ekonomi (literally translated as "Bachelor of Economy"), S.Kom. for Sarjana Ilmu Komputer (literally translated as "Bachelor of Computer Science"), or S.Sos. for Sarjana Ilmu Sosial (literally translated as "Bachelor of Social Sciences"). In the past, the Indonesian academic system adopted the old European/western degrees, such as the Ir (insinyur from Dutch ingenieur) for an engineering degree and the common academic degree (doktorandus from Dutch and ultimately Latin doctorandus) for a degree in either social or natural sciences.
In Nepal, the bachelor's degree was initially a three-year program for courses like Bachelor of Business Studies (
B.B.S.), Bachelor of Sciences (B.Sc.)., Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.), Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) from Tribhuvan University, Pokhara University, Purbanchal University and Kathmandu University but now it is mostly a four-year program for new courses like Bachelor of Business Administration (B.B.A.), Bachelor of Business Information System (B.B.I.S.), Bachelor of Information Management (B.I.M.), Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.), Bachelor of Science in Computer Studies and Information Technology (B.Sc).C.S.I.T. Some bachelor's programs are still three years long, such as the Bachelor of Arts (B.A) and Bachelor of Education (B.Ed). It is completed after 10+2 level (High School) or Diploma or any other equivalent level of studies. Bachelor of Business Administration (B.B.A), Bachelor of Information Management (B.I.M.), Bachelor of Business Information Systems (B.B.I.S.), Bachelor of Engineering, and Bachelor of Science in Computer Science and Information Technology (B.Sc.C.S.I.T.) are a few popular bachelor's degree programs. B.Sc. and B.B.Sc. have recently turned into four-year programs from three-year programs. In Nepal, Tribhuvan University as an oldest and biggest University based on number of student and academic department,
Institutes of higher learning in Malaysia provide three or four years of education leading to a B.Sc. Hons Degree. The standards of categorization is almost consistent among Malaysian Universities. Candidates who excel in their academic results will be awarded a First Class Bachelor Hons Degree (usually 3.67 CGPA and above), followed by Class Second Upper (usually between 3.00–3.66 CGPA), Class Second Lower (usually 2.50–2.99 CGPA), Class Three (usually 2.00–2.49 CGPA) and General Degree (Without Honours), for usually 1.99 and below CGPA candidates.
In Pakistan, arts, commerce, and science colleges provide four-year bachelor's degrees (BA, BSc, BBA, BCom, etc.). Generally these programs are of four years duration as elsewhere in the world and begin after completing higher secondary school education by receiving a Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSSC) acknowledging one's twelve years of study by the respective board. After successful completion of these programs, a bachelor's degree is awarded by the respective university. Engineering and medical colleges provide four- and five-year degree programs, respectively, for bachelor's degrees (BE/BS/BSc Engg and MBBS) that also begin after higher secondary school year 12. The Bachelor of Architecture (BArch) degree program is of five years' duration.
In the Philippines, where the term "course" is commonly used to refer to a bachelor's degree major, course of study or program, several undergraduate categories exist—the two most common degrees awarded being Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) and Bachelor of Arts (B.A. or A.B.). Specializations ("majors") in economics, business administration, social work, agriculture, nursing, accountancy, architecture and engineering are offered as B.S. degrees in most colleges and universities. The latter three specializations require five years of schooling, in contrast to the standard of four years. Other common degrees are Bachelor in Education (B.Ed.) and Bachelor of Laws (LL.B., a professional degree). Being patterned after the United States, all universities and colleges offer graduation with honors—cum laude, magna cum laude, and summa cum laude.
Recognised institutes of higher learning only are authorised to award degrees in Sri Lanka. Three years full-time bachelor's degree without an area of specialization is known as a general degree. A degree with a specialization (in accounting, chemistry, plant biotechnology, zoology, physics, engineering, IT, law, etc.) is known as an honours degree and requires four years (120 credits or more) of study and more entrance qualifications. A degree in medicine, an M.B.B.Sc., requires a minimum of six years.
In Australia, a "bachelor degree" is normally a three to four-year program, leading to a qualification at level 7 of the
A one-year postgraduate
Some bachelor's degrees (e.g. engineering and environmental science) include an integrated honours degree as part of a four-year program. Honours is generally for students who want to take up a research track for
Bachelor honours degrees include a major Independent research component, allowing students to develop skills that will enable them to proceed to further study or to work in research roles in industry. First-class or second-class (upper division) honours are generally required for entry into doctoral programs (e.g. PhDs, etc.); an alternative route to doctoral study is via a "masters degree".
In New Zealand, only recognised institutions—usually universities and polytechnics—have degree-awarding powers.
Most bachelor's degrees are three years full-time, but certain degrees, such as the Bachelor of Laws and the Bachelor of Engineering degrees, require four years of study. A Bachelor with Honours is a program of four years duration (e.g., Bachelor of Arts with Honours). A Bachelor of Medicine degree requires a minimum of six years.
Where students opt to study two bachelor's degrees simultaneously—referred to as a "conjoint degree" or "
Consistently high-performing students may also be invited to complete the 'honours' program. The Bachelor with Honours usually requires an extra year of study with an extra honours thesis/dissertation. This degree is considered to fall between the bachelor's and master's levels on the
Usually the region presents Associates, Bachelor's, Master's, doctoral, and postdoctoral degrees.
Education in Canada is governed independently by each province and territory, however a common framework for degrees was agreed by the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada in 2007. This adopted descriptors for bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees that were deliberately similar to those defined by the
Under the framework, four general forms of bachelor's degree are defined: general programs providing a broad education and preparing graduates for graduate-entry professional programs or employment generally; in-depth academic programs in a specific subject that prepare graduates for postgraduate study in the field or employment generally; applied programs that concentrate on a mastery of practice rather than knowledge; and professional programs, often (but not exclusively) graduate-entry, that prepare graduates to practice as professionals in a specific field. This last category included graduate-entry degrees titled as if they were doctorates, such as MD, JD and DDS degrees – despite their names, these are considered bachelor's degrees.
Bachelor's degrees may take either three or four years to complete and are awarded by colleges and universities. In many universities and colleges bachelor's degrees are differentiated either as bachelor's or as honours bachelor's degrees. The term "Honours" is an academic distinction, which indicates that students must achieve their bachelor's degree with a sufficiently high overall grade point average; in addition, some programs may require more education than non-honours programs. The honours degrees are sometimes designated with the abbreviation in brackets of '(Hon(s))'.
Going back in history, the Bachelor with Honours (
In Quebec, students have to go through a minimum of two years of
In the province of Ontario, the vast majority of bachelor's degrees offered by
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Bachelor's degrees in the United States are typically designed to be completed in four years of full-time study, although some programs (such as engineering or architecture) usually take five, and some universities and colleges allow ambitious students (usually with the help of summer school, who are taking many classes each semester or who have existing credit from high school
If the student has completed the requirements for an honors degree only in a particular discipline (e.g., English language and literature), the degree is designated accordingly (e.g., B.A. with Honors in English). In this case, the degree candidate will complete the normal curriculum for all subjects except the selected discipline ("English," in the preceding example). The requirements in either case usually require completion of particular honors seminars, independent research at a level higher than usually required (often with greater personal supervision by faculty than usual), and a written honors thesis in the major subject.
Many universities and colleges in the United States award bachelor's degrees with
Bachelor's degrees may take an average of five years (from four to five years) to complete depending on the course load and the program and they are awarded by colleges and universities. Medicine is from 6 to 7 years. Each college has its own curriculum and requirements with an emphasis of their choice, governed independently by each state of the republic. After finishing all the subjects the student require a final work, which means the completion of particular honors seminars, research and development or a written thesis in a particular field. Mexico's regulations established as an obligation in order to receive their license and title the fulfillment of a "Social Service" to the nation (usually for those who finished their studies in a public institution) as a remuneration to society in the form of social actions, the benefits, as students, were received during training. This requirement takes about six months to one year depending on the type of degree. Bachelor's degree should not be falsely related with its Spanish cognate "Bachiller", which designate a prerequisite for matriculate in a career or bachelor studies. The official name for a bachelor's degree in Mexico is "Licenciado" and such studies are referred as "Licenciatura".
Bachelor's degrees should not be confused with
In Brazil, a bachelor's degree takes from three years to six years to complete depending on the course load and the program. A bachelor's degree is the title sought by Brazilians in order to be a professional in a certain area of human knowledge. Master's and doctoral degrees are additional degrees for those seeking an academic career or a specific understanding of a field.
Even without a formal adhesion to the
Depending on programs and personal choices, Europeans can achieve a master's degree in as little as four years (a three-year bachelor's and a one-year Master's) and as long as six years (a four-year bachelor's, a two-year Master's) of higher education. In Brazil it would be possible to have a specialization "lato-sensu" degree—which differs from a Brazilian "stricto-sensu" master's degree—in as little as three years (two years for a "tecnólogo" degree and an additional year for a specialization) or as long as eight years (six years for professional degrees, plus two years for a master's "stricto-sensu" degree—typical in medicine or engineering).
In Colombia, secondary school has two milestones, in 9th and 11th grades. After completing the first 4 years of secondary school (6th, 7th, 8th and 9th grades), a student is considered to have completed the basic secondary school while after completed the last two years (10th and 11th grades) is considered to have completed "bachillerato" or high school diploma.
This degree can be either academic (the most common) or:
After graduating from high-school, hopeful students must take a nationwide exam that determines their eligibility to apply for their desired program, depending on the score the student achieves on the exam. In Colombia, the system of academic degrees is similar to the US model. After completing their "bachillerato" (high school), students can take one of three options. The first one is called a "Profesional" (professional career), which is similar to a bachelor's degree requiring from four to six years of study according to the chosen program, However, strictly-career-related subjects are taken from the very beginning unlike US where focused career-related subjects usually are part of the curriculum from the third year. The other option is called a "Técnico" (technician); this degree consists of only two and a half years of study and prepares the student for technical or mechanical labors. Finally, the third option is called a "Tecnólogo" (equivalent to an associate degree), and consist of 3 years of study. A technical school gives to the student, after a program of two years, an
Universities offer graduate degrees in ICFES endorsed programs like medicine, engineering, laws, accountancy, business management and other professional areas. A typical undergraduate program usually takes 10 or 11 semesters and some (i.e. medicine) require an additional period of service or practice to apply for the degree. A student who has obtained an undergraduate degree can opt to continue studying a career after completing their undergraduate degree by continuing onto Master's and Doctorate degrees. They can also choose to a specialization in certain fields of study by doing an extra year.
ICFES is the national authority for education quality.
In Guyana, the universities offer Bachelor programs in different streams like Bachelor of Arts (B.A), Bachelor of Science in Nursing, Design and Arts, Liberal Arts, Psychology, Doctor of Medicine (MD) and other health science programs. These programs are delivered by University of Guyana,
In these countries, there are two titles that should not be confused:
Bachelor's degrees exist in almost every country in Europe. However, these degrees were only recently introduced in some
The rest of the programmes typically lead to Bachelor of Engineering degree (B.Eng.), Bachelor of Business Administration degree (B.B.A.), or other variants. Also,
On a per-country, per-discipline and sometimes even per-institute basis, the duration of an undergraduate degree program is typically three or four years, but can range anywhere from three to six years. This is an important factor in the student's decision-making process.
The historical situation in Austria was very similar to that in Germany, with the traditional first degrees being the Magister and the Diplom, which are master's-level qualifications. From 2004, bachelor's degrees have been reintroduced as part of the
Most universities and colleges in Croatia today offer a three-year bachelor program, which can be followed up typically with a two-year master's (graduate) program.
Historically, the baccalareus was the undergraduate degree awarded to students who graduated from the course of
A bachelor's degree, abbreviated Bc.A., in the field of fine arts, and Bc. (Bakalář in Czech) in other fields is awarded for accredited undergraduate programs at universities and colleges.
The vast majority of undergraduate programmes offered in the Czech Republic have a standard duration of three years.
In the Czech tertiary education system, most universities and colleges today offer a three-year bachelor program, which can be followed up typically with a two-year master's (graduate) program. Some specializations, such as doctors of medicine and veterinary doctors, hold exceptions from the general system in that the only option is a six-year master's program with no bachelor stage (graduate with title doctor). This is due mainly to the difficulty of meaningfully splitting up the education for these specialisations.
The bachelor's degree was re-introduced at universities in Denmark in 1993, after the original degree (baccalaureus) was abandoned in 1775. The bachelor's degree is awarded after three or four years of study at a university and follows a scheme quite similar to the British one. Two bachelor's degrees are given at the university level today:
However, both in the business and the academic world in Denmark, the bachelor's degree is still considered to be "the first half" of a master's (
The bachelor's degree has also been used since the late 1990s in a number of areas like nursing and teaching. Usually referred to as a "Professional Bachelor" (Danish: professionsbachelor), these degrees usually require 3 to 41⁄2 years of combined theoretical and practical study at a so-called
Bachelor's degrees in the Faroe Islands are much the same as in Denmark.
The traditional bachelor's degree is the equivalent of the French Licence three-year degree. Since the new European system of 2004 LMD Bologna process was founded, it has become standard to recognize a bachelor's degree over three years with a
Some private institutions are however literally naming their degrees Bachelor's, Master's and Executive, such as the Bordeaux MBA/Collège International de Bordeaux. None of them are accredited by the French State, but offer similar course subjects, structures and methods to those found in Anglo-Saxon institutions.
Historically, the bachelor's degree, called "Bakkalaureus", existed in Germany since the late Middle Ages. But it was abolished by the educational reforms undertaken in 1820. The
However, in 1998, in order to comply with the European Bologna process, a new educational law reintroduced the bachelor's degree (first degree after three years of study) in Germany. Today, these degrees can be called either "Bakkalaureus" or "Bachelor" (in accordance with federal law), but the English term is more common. According to the Bologna model, the Bachelor is followed by the post-graduate master's degree of another two years. The traditional degrees of Diplom and Magister were mostly abolished in 2010, although the Diplom still persists in a few subjects and universities and has been reintroduced as alternative degree in some places.
The traditional degrees have been re-mapped to the new
Previously, TEI undergraduate degrees required 3 1⁄2 years of study, and conferred a qualification legally equivalent to a bachelor's (ord) degree. This qualification was discontinued and TEIs now award a 4-year bachelor's degree.
The old four-, five-, or six-year
In the Netherlands, the Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts degrees were introduced in 2002. Until that time, a single program that led to the
In 2003/2004, the Dutch degree system was changed because of the Bologna process. Former degrees included:
While the titles ing., bc., ir., mr., drs. and dr. are used before one's own name, the degrees B, M or D are mentioned after one's name. It is still allowed to use the traditional titles.
Whether a bachelor's degree is granted by a hogeschool or university is highly relevant since these parallel systems of higher education have traditionally served somewhat different purposes, with the vocational colleges mainly concentrating on skills and practical training. A B.A. or B.Sc. from a university grants "immediate" entry into a master's program. Moreover, this is usually considered a formality to allow students to switch to foreign universities master's programs. Meanwhile, those having completed a HBO from a vocational college, which represented the highest possible level of vocational education available, can only continue to a "master's" on completion of a challenging year of additional study, which in itself can serve as a type of selection process, with the prospective M.Sc. students being required to cover a great deal of ground in a single year.
Recently, HBO (vocational) master's degrees have been introduced in the Netherlands. Graduates thereof may use neither the extension "of Arts" (M.A.) nor "of Science" (M.Sc.). They may use an M followed by the field of specialization (e.g., M.Des).
This year of study to "convert" from the vocational to academic (WO-wetenschappelijk onderwijs, literally "scientific education") is also known as a "bridge" or "premasters" year. Note that despite the use of the terminology "university of applied science" the higher vocational colleges are not considered to be "universities" within the Netherlands.
Important aspects of Dutch bachelor's degree courses (and others) relative to some of those offered abroad include:
In February, 2011, the Dutch State Secretary of Education decided to adhere to the recommendations written in a report by the Veerman Commission. In the near future, the distinction between academic and higher vocational degrees will disappear.
In 2003, the German-style education system was changed to conform to the ECTS because of the Bologna process. The existing academic degree granted with a diploma was transformed into a baccalaureus (bachelor's degree). The universities usually award a bachelor's degree after three years (following which, a master's degree will be two years long) or four years (following which, a master's degree will be one year long).
A bachelor's degree in Norway requires three years of fultime studies. There are some exceptions, for example physiotherapy.
In Poland, the
Presently, the Portuguese equivalent of a bachelor's degree is the licenciatura, awarded after three years of study (four in some few cases) at an accredited
Before the Bologna process (2006/2007), the bacharelato (bachelor's degree) existed in the Portuguese higher education system. It required three years of study, being roughly equivalent to the present licenciatura. At that time, the licenciatura referred to a
Today, the former and current licenciatura degrees are referred in Portugal, respectively, as pre-Bologna and post-Bologna licenciaturas.
In Spain, due to the ongoing transition to a model compliant with the
Up until 2009/2010, the system was split into three categories of degrees. There were the so-called first-cycle degrees: "Diplomado" or "Ingeniero Técnico", with nominal durations varying between three and four years; there were also second-cycle degrees: "Licenciado" or "Ingeniero" with nominal durations varying between four and six years; and finally the third-cycle degrees: "Doctor." The official first-cycle degrees are comparable in terms of duration, scope, and educational outcomes to an Anglo-Saxon bachelor's degree. Meanwhile, the second-cycle degrees are comparable in terms of duration, scope, and educational outcomes to an Anglo-Saxon bachelor's + Master's degrees combination if compared with the Anglo-Saxon system. In this traditional system the access to doctoral studies was granted only to the holders of "Licenciado", "Ingeniero" or "Arquitecto" (second-cycle) degrees, and the "Master" or "Magister" titles were unregulated (so, there coexisted so-called "Master" programs with different durations, from some months to two years, backed by universities or centers without any official recognition) and only the reputation of the program/institution could back them.
The Swedish equivalent of a bachelor's degree is called kandidatexamen. It is earned after three years of studies, of which at least a year and a half in the major subject. A thesis of at least 15 ECTS credits must be included in the degree. Previously, there was a Bachelor of Law degree (juris kandidat) which required 4.5 years of study, but this degree now has a new name, juristexamen (and is now a master's degree called "Master of Laws").
Like Austria and Germany, Switzerland did not have a tradition of bachelor's and master's degrees. In 2003, after the application of the Bologna process, bachelor's and graduate master's degrees replaced the old degrees. As of 1 December 2005 the
The bachelor's degree is the standard undergraduate degree in the United Kingdom, with the most common degrees being the bachelor of arts (BA) and bachelor of science (BSc). Most bachelor's degree courses (apart from the very rare postgraduate awards, and those in
Bachelor's degrees should not be confused with baccalaureate qualifications, which derive their name from the same root. In the UK, baccalaureate qualifications, e.g.
Until the 19th century, a bachelor's degree represented the first degree in a particular faculty, with Arts representing undergraduate study, thus the Bachelor of Civil Law (BCL) at Oxford and the Bachelor of Laws (LLB) at Cambridge, for example, were postgraduate degrees. Vestiges of this system still remain in the ancient universities, with Oxford and Cambridge awarding BAs for undergraduate degrees in both arts and sciences (although both award undergraduate BTh degrees through associated
Common bachelor's degrees and abbreviations:
In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, bachelor's degrees usually take three years of study to complete, although courses may take four years where they include a year abroad or a placement year. Degrees may have titles related to their broad subject area or faculty, such as BA or BSc, or may be more subject specific (e.g. BEng or LLB). The majority of bachelor's degrees are now
Although first degree courses are usually three years (360
In addition to bachelor's degrees, some institutions offer integrated
The normal academic standard for bachelor's degrees in England, Wales and Northern Ireland is the
Some institutions have announced that they intend to replace this system of classifying honours degrees with an American-style
On the Framework for Higher Education Qualifications, standard undergraduate bachelor's degrees with and without honours are at level 6, although the courses include learning across levels 4 to 6. Honours degrees normally require 360 credits with a minimum of 90 at level 6, while ordinary degrees need 300 credits with a minimum of 60 at level 6. Bachelor's degrees in medicine, dentistry and veterinary science are at level 7, with learning spanning levels 4 to 7, and are not normally credit rated. The Diploma of Higher Education is a level 5 (second year of bachelor's degree) qualification and requires 240 credits, a minimum of 90 at level 5; The Certificate of Higher Education is a level 4 (first year of bachelor's degree) qualification and requires 120 credits, a minimum of 90 at level 4.
Other qualifications at level 6 of the Framework for Higher Education Qualifications or the Regulated Qualifications Framework, such as
At Scottish universities, bachelor's degrees (and the equivalent
An honours degree may be directly linked to professional or vocational qualifications, particularly in fields such as engineering, surveying and architecture. These courses tend to have highly specified curricula, leaving students without many options for broader study. Others, following a more traditional route, start off with a broad range of studies across the faculty that has admitted the student or, via modular study, across the whole university. Students on these courses specialise later in their degree programmes. Typically degree grades are based only on the final two years of study, after a specialisation has been chosen, so broader study courses taken in the first two years do not affect the final degree grade.
Honours degrees are subdivided into
Ordinary degrees are awarded to students who have completed three years at university studying a variety of related subjects. These may be taken over a broad range of subjects or (as with honours degrees) with a specialisation in a particular subject (in the latter case, they are sometimes known s designated degrees). As ordinary degrees in Scotland constitute a distinct course of study, rather than a grade below honours degrees, they can be graded (from lowest to highest) as "pass", "merit" or "distinction". As in the rest of the UK, Certificates and Diplomas of Higher Education may be earned by those completing one and two years of a bachelor's degree course respectively.
The first two years, sometimes three, of both an ordinary degree and an honours degree are identical, but candidates for the ordinary degree study in less depth in their final year and often over a wider variety of subjects, and do not usually complete a dissertation. A Scottish ordinary degree is thus different from ordinary degrees in the rest of the UK in comprising a distinct course of study from the honours degree. In keeping with the Scottish "broad education" philosophy, ordinary degrees (and more rarely honours ones) may mix different disciplines such as sciences and humanities taught in different faculties and in some cases even different universities.
Bachelor's degrees with honours are at level 10 of the Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF) and require 480
There are institutions which award bachelor's degrees in almost every city in
Some of the public and private universities offer courses taught partly in English, and many universities offer courses entirely in English, such as Boğaziçi University, Middle East Technical University, Sabanci University, and Yeditepe University.