Azerbaijan

Republic of Azerbaijan
Azərbaycan Respublikası  (Azerbaijani)
Anthem: 
Location of Azerbaijan (green) and Artsakh[a] (light green).
Location of Azerbaijan (green) and Artsakh[a] (light green).
Capital
and largest city
Baku
40°25′N 49°50′E / 40°25′N 49°50′E / 40.417; 49.833
Official languagesAzerbaijani
Ethnic minority languagesAvar, Budukh, Georgian, Juhuri, Khinalug, Kryts, Kurdish, Lezgian, Russian, Rutul, Talysh, Tat, Tsakhur and Udi
Ethnic groups (2009[1])
DemonymAzerbaijani
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party semi-presidential republic[2]
• President
Ilham Aliyev
Mehriban Aliyeva
Novruz Mammadov
LegislatureNational Assembly
Formation
28 May 1918
28 April 1920
• Independence from Soviet Union
30 August 1991 (declared)
18 October 1991 (independence)
25 December 1991 (completed)
21 December 1991
2 March 1992
• Constitution adopted
12 November 1995
Area
• Total
86,600 km2 (33,400 sq mi) (111th)
• Water (%)
1.6
Population
• 2018 estimate
9,898,100[3] (91st)
• Density
114/km2 (295.3/sq mi) (99th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$175 billion[4] (72nd)
• Per capita
$17,857[4] (71st)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$39 billion[4] (110th)
• Per capita
$4,097[4] (110th)
Gini (2017)31.8[5]
medium
HDI (2017)Decrease 0.757[6]
high · 80th
CurrencyManat (₼) (AZN)
Time zoneAZT (UTC+04)
Driving sideright
Calling code+994
ISO 3166 codeAZ
Internet TLD.az

Azerbaijan (n/ (About this sound listen) JAHN; Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan [ɑːzæɾbɑjˈd͡ʒɑn]), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Respublikası [ɑːzæɾbɑjˈd͡ʒɑn ɾespublikɑˈsɯ]), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.[7] It is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west and Iran to the south. The exclave of Nakhchivan is bound by Armenia to the north and east, Iran to the south and west, and has an 11 km long border with Turkey in the northwest.

The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic proclaimed its independence in 1918 and became the first democratic state in the Muslim-oriented world. The country was incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1920 as the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic.[8][9] The modern Republic of Azerbaijan proclaimed its independence on 30 August 1991,[10] prior to the official dissolution of the USSR in December 1991. In September 1991, the Armenian majority of the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh region seceded to form the Republic of Artsakh.[11] The region and seven adjacent districts outside it became de facto independent with the end of the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1994. These regions are internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan pending a solution to the status of the Nagorno-Karabakh, found through negotiations facilitated by the OSCE.[12][13][14][15]

The sovereign state of Azerbaijan is a unitary semi-presidential republic.[2] It's a member state of the Council of Europe, the OSCE, and the NATO Partnership for Peace (PfP) program. It is one of six independent Turkic states and an active member of the Turkic Council and the TÜRKSOY community. Azerbaijan has diplomatic relations with 158 countries and holds membership in 38 international organizations.[16] It is one of the founding members of GUAM, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)[17] and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. A member of the United Nations since 1992 after its independence, Azerbaijan was elected to membership in the newly established Human Rights Council by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 May 2006. Its term of office began on 19 June 2006.[18] Azerbaijan is also a member state of the Non-Aligned Movement, holds observer status in World Trade Organization, and is a correspondent at the International Telecommunication Union.[16][19]

The Constitution of Azerbaijan does not declare an official religion and all major political forces in the country are secularist. However, the majority of the population are of Muslim background. More than 89% of the population is Shia.[20] Most Azerbaijanis, however, do not actively practice any religion, with 53% stating religion has little to no importance in their lives, according to Pew Research Center and Gallup polls. Alcohol and non-Islamic places[clarify] are also permitted.[21][22][23][24] Azerbaijan has a high level of human development which ranks on par with most Eastern European countries.[25] It has a high rate of economic development[26] and literacy,[27] as well as a low rate of unemployment.[28] However, the ruling party, the New Azerbaijan Party, has been accused of authoritarianism and human rights abuses.[29]

Name

Azerbaijan and its main cities

According to a modern etymology, the term Azerbaijan derives from that of Atropates,[30][31] a Persian[32][33][34] satrap under the Achaemenid Empire, who was later reinstated as the satrap of Media under Alexander the Great.[35][36] The original etymology of this name is thought to have its roots in the once-dominant Zoroastrianism. In the Avesta's Frawardin Yasht ("Hymn to the Guardian Angels"), there is a mention of âterepâtahe ashaonô fravashîm ýazamaide, which literally translates from Avestan as "we worship the fravashi of the holy Atropatene."[37] The name "Atropates" itself is the Greek transliteration of an Old Iranian, probably Median, compounded name with the meaning "Protected by the (Holy) Fire" or "The Land of the (Holy) Fire".[38] The Greek name was mentioned by Diodorus Siculus and Strabo. Over the span of millennia, the name evolved to Āturpātākān (Middle Persian), then to Ādharbādhagān, Ādharbāyagān, Āzarbāydjān (New Persian) and present-day Azerbaijan.

The name Azerbaijan was first adopted for the area of the present-day Republic of Azerbaijan by the government of Musavat in 1918,[39] after the collapse of the Russian Empire, when the independent Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was established. Until then, the designation had been used exclusively to identify the adjacent region of contemporary northwestern Iran,[40][41][42][43] while the area of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was formerly referred to as Arran and Shirvan.[44] On that basis Iran protested the newly adopted country name.[45]

During the Soviet rule, the country was also spelled in English from the Russian transliteration as Azerbaydzhan (Russian: Азербайджа́н).[46]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Азэрбиджан
адыгабзэ: Азербайджан
Afrikaans: Azerbeidjan
Alemannisch: Aserbaidschan
አማርኛ: አዘርባይጃን
Ænglisc: Azerbaijan
العربية: أذربيجان
aragonés: Azerbaichán
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܙܪܒܝܓܐܢ
armãneashti: Azerbaigian
অসমীয়া: আজেৰবাইজান
asturianu: Azerbaixán
Avañe'ẽ: Aservaijã
авар: Къажар
azərbaycanca: Azərbaycan
Bân-lâm-gú: Azerbaijan
башҡортса: Әзербайжан
беларуская: Азербайджан
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Азэрбайджан
भोजपुरी: अज़रबैजान
Bikol Central: Aserbayhan
Bislama: Azerbaijan
български: Азербайджан
Boarisch: Aserbaidschan
bosanski: Azerbejdžan
brezhoneg: Azerbaidjan
català: Azerbaidjan
Чӑвашла: Азербайджан
Cebuano: Aserbaiyan
čeština: Ázerbájdžán
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Azerbaiyán
Chi-Chewa: Azerbaijan
chiShona: Azerbaijan
chiTumbuka: Azerbaijan
Cymraeg: Aserbaijan
davvisámegiella: Aserbaižan
Deitsch: Aserbaidschan
Deutsch: Aserbaidschan
ދިވެހިބަސް: އަޒަރުބައިޖާން
dolnoserbski: Azerbajdžan
डोटेली: अजरबैजान
Ελληνικά: Αζερμπαϊτζάν
español: Azerbaiyán
Esperanto: Azerbajĝano
estremeñu: Azerbaiyán
euskara: Azerbaijan
eʋegbe: Azerbaijan
Fiji Hindi: Azerbaijan
føroyskt: Aserbadsjan
français: Azerbaïdjan
Fulfulde: Aserbayjan
Gagauz: Azerbaycan
Gàidhlig: Asarbaideàn
galego: Acerbaixán
ГӀалгӀай: ГӀозлойче
Gĩkũyũ: Azerbaijan
گیلکی: آذرباىجان
ગુજરાતી: અઝેરબીજાન
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: अझरबैजान
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Azerbaijan
Hausa: Azerbaijan
Hawaiʻi: ‘Akepaikana
հայերեն: Ադրբեջան
हिन्दी: अज़रबाइजान
hornjoserbsce: Azerbajdźan
hrvatski: Azerbajdžan
Ilokano: Azerbaijan
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: আজারবাইজান
Bahasa Indonesia: Azerbaijan
interlingua: Azerbaidzhan
Interlingue: Azerbaidjan
isiZulu: Azerbaijan
íslenska: Aserbaídsjan
italiano: Azerbaigian
עברית: אזרבייג'ן
Basa Jawa: Azerbaijan
Kabɩyɛ: Azɛrbayɩjanɩ
kalaallisut: Aserbajdsjan
Kapampangan: Azerbaijan
къарачай-малкъар: Азербайджан
ქართული: აზერბაიჯანი
kaszëbsczi: Azerbejdżan
қазақша: Әзірбайжан
kernowek: Azerbayjan
Kinyarwanda: Azeribayijani
Kiswahili: Azerbaijan
Kreyòl ayisyen: Azerbaydjan
kurdî: Azerbaycan
Кыргызча: Азербайжан
кырык мары: Азербайджан
Ladino: Azerbaidjan
лакку: Азирбижан
latgaļu: Azerbaidžans
latviešu: Azerbaidžāna
Lëtzebuergesch: Aserbaidschan
lietuvių: Azerbaidžanas
Ligure: Azerbaijan
Limburgs: Azerbeidzjan
lingála: Azɛrbayzáni
Lingua Franca Nova: Azerbaidjan
Livvinkarjala: Azerbaidžuanu
lumbaart: Azerbaigian
मैथिली: अजरबैजान
македонски: Азербејџан
Malagasy: Azerbaijana
മലയാളം: അസർബെയ്ജാൻ
Māori: Atepaihānia
मराठी: अझरबैजान
მარგალური: აზერბაიჯანი
مازِرونی: آذربایجون
Bahasa Melayu: Azerbaijan
Baso Minangkabau: Azerbaijan
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Azerbaijan
Mirandés: Azerbaijon
мокшень: Азербайджан
монгол: Азербайжан
Dorerin Naoero: Aderbaidjan
Nederlands: Azerbeidzjan
Nedersaksies: Azerbeidzjan
नेपाली: अजरबैजान
नेपाल भाषा: अजरबैजान
Napulitano: Azerbaijan
нохчийн: Азербайджан
Nordfriisk: Aserbaidschan
Norfuk / Pitkern: Eserbeyjan
norsk nynorsk: Aserbajdsjan
Novial: Aserbaijan
occitan: Azerbaitjan
олык марий: Азербайджан
Oromoo: Azarbaajan
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Ozarbayjon
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਅਜ਼ਰਬਾਈਜਾਨ
Pangasinan: Azerbaijan
پنجابی: آذربائیجان
Papiamentu: Azerbaijan
Patois: Azabaijan
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អាស៊ែបៃហ្សង់
Picard: Azerbaïdjan
Piemontèis: Aserbaigian
Tok Pisin: Azerbaijan
Plattdüütsch: Aserbaidschan
polski: Azerbejdżan
Ποντιακά: Αζερμπαϊτζάν
português: Azerbaijão
Qaraqalpaqsha: A'zerbayjan
qırımtatarca: Azerbaycan
reo tahiti: Atepaihānia
română: Azerbaidjan
rumantsch: Aserbeidschan
Runa Simi: Asarsuyu
русиньскый: Азербайджан
русский: Азербайджан
саха тыла: Азербайдьан
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱟᱡᱟᱨᱵᱟᱭᱡᱟᱱ
Gagana Samoa: Azerbaijin
संस्कृतम्: अजर्बैजान
Sängö: Zerebaidyäan
Scots: Azerbaijan
Seeltersk: Aserbaidschan
Sesotho sa Leboa: Azerbaijan
sicilianu: Azzirbaiggian
Simple English: Azerbaijan
SiSwati: IZebajani
slovenčina: Azerbajdžan
slovenščina: Azerbajdžan
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Аꙁѣрбаичанъ
ślůnski: Azerbejdżůn
Soomaaliga: Aserbiijaan
Sranantongo: Azerbaijanikondre
српски / srpski: Азербејџан
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Azerbejdžan
Basa Sunda: Azerbaijan
svenska: Azerbajdzjan
Tagalog: Azerbaijan
Taqbaylit: Azerbijan
татарча/tatarça: Азәрбайҗан
тоҷикӣ: Озарбойҷон
Türkçe: Azerbaycan
Türkmençe: Azerbaýjan
тыва дыл: Азербайджан
українська: Азербайджан
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئەزەربەيجان
Vahcuengh: Azerbaijan
vèneto: Azerbaigian
vepsän kel’: Azerbaidžan
Tiếng Việt: Azerbaijan
Volapük: Lasärbäcän
文言: 阿塞拜疆
West-Vlams: Azerbeidzjan
Winaray: Aserbaiyan
吴语: 阿塞拜疆
Xitsonga: Azerbaijan
Yorùbá: Azerbaijan
粵語: 阿塞拜疆
žemaitėška: Azėrbaidžians
中文: 阿塞拜疆