Austrofascism

Fatherland Front rally, 1936
Fatherland Front supporters in March, 1938
Flag of the Fatherland Front of Austria.

Austrofascism (German: Austrofaschismus) is a term used to describe the authoritarian system installed in Austria with the May Constitution of 1934, which ceased with the annexation of the newly founded Federal State of Austria into Nazi Germany in 1938. It was based on a ruling party, the Fatherland Front (Vaterländische Front) and the Heimwehr (Home Guard) paramilitary militia. Leaders were Engelbert Dollfuss and, after Dollfuss's assassination, Kurt Schuschnigg, who were previously politicians of the Christian Social Party, which was quickly integrated into the new movement.

Austrofascism, which was Catholic and corporatist and espoused Austrian nationalism, must be contrasted with Austrian National Socialism, which was pan-German and anti-semitic in outlook.

Origins

The Austrofascist movement's origin lies in the Korneuburg Oath, a declaration released by the Christian Social paramilitary organization Heimwehr on 18 May 1930. The declaration condemned both the "Marxist class struggle" and the economic structures of "liberal-capitalism". Furthermore, it explicitly rejected "the Western democratic parliamentary system and [multi]-party state".

The declaration was directed mainly at the Social Democratic opposition, largely in response to the Linz Program of 1926, and was not only taken by the Heimwehr but also by many Christian Social politicians, setting Austria on a course to an authoritarian system.

Ideologically, Austrofascism was rooted in Austria's political Catholicism. It also somewhat resembled Italian fascism as expounded by Giovanni Gentile.

Other Languages
беларуская: Аўстрафашызм
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Аўстрафашызм
čeština: Austrofašismus
español: Austrofascismo
Esperanto: Aŭstrofaŝismo
français: Austrofascisme
հայերեն: Ավստրոֆաշիզմ
Bahasa Indonesia: Austrofasisme
italiano: Austrofascismo
Nederlands: Austro-fascisme
norsk nynorsk: Austrofascisme
português: Austrofascismo
русский: Австрофашизм
српски / srpski: Аустрофашизам
svenska: Austrofascism
українська: Австрофашизм