Austria

Republic of Austria

Republik Österreich  (German)
Anthem: 
Location of Austria (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]
Location of Austria (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Vienna
48°12′N 16°21′E / 48°12′N 16°21′E / 48.200; 16.350
Official language
and national language
German[a][b]
Recognised languages
Ethnic groups
(2012)
Demonym(s)Austrian
GovernmentFederal parliamentary republic
• President
Alexander Van der Bellen
Brigitte Bierlein
Clemens Jabloner
Wolfgang Sobotka
Vacant
LegislatureParliament
Federal Council
National Council
Establishment history
976
1156
1453
1804
1867
1918
1934
• Anschluss
1938
since 1945
• State Treaty in effect
27 July 1955
14 December 1955
1 January 1995
Area
• Total
83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi) (113th)
• Water (%)
1.7
Population
• October 2018 estimate
Increase 8,857,960[4] (96th)
• Density
104/km2 (269.4/sq mi) (106th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$461.432 billion[5]
• Per capita
$51,936[5] (17th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$477.672 billion[5] (29th)
• Per capita
$53,764[5] (14th)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 26.8[6]
low · 14th
HDI (2017)Increase 0.908[7]
very high · 20th
CurrencyEuro ()[c] (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+43
ISO 3166 codeAT
Internet TLD.at[d]
  1. ^ There is an official dictionary, the Österreichisches Wörterbuch, published on commission by the Austrian Ministry of Education.
  2. ^ Croatian, Czech, Hungarian, Romani, Slovak, and Slovene are officially recognised by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML).
  3. ^ Austrian schilling before 1999; Virtual Euro since 1 January 1999; Euro since 1 January 2002.
  4. ^ The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.
Interactive map showing border of Austria

Austria (ə/ (About this soundlisten), s-/;[8] German: Österreich [ˈøːstɐraɪç] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich, About this soundlisten ), is a country in Central Europe comprising nine federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi), a population of nearly nine million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is landlocked and highly mountainous, lying within the Alps; only 32% of the country is below 500 m (1,640 ft), and its highest point is 3,798 m (12,461 ft).[9] The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language,[10] and German in its standard form is the country's official language.[11] Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene.[9]

Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century. It initially emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and later archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history. As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars; it started the first one under Emperor Franz Joseph and was the birthplace of Adolf Hitler, who provoked the second one.

Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz, Salzburg and Innsbruck. Austria is consistently ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms. The country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and[12] joined the European Union in 1995.[9] It harbours the OSCE and OPEC and is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol.[13] Austria also signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995,[14] and adopted the euro currency in 1999.[15]

Etymology

The German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996.[16][17] This word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local (Bavarian) dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is Ostravica ('sharp mountain'), because it is very steep on both sides.

Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976. The word "Austria" is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century.[18] At the time, the Danube basin of Austria (Upper and Lower Austria) was the easternmost extent of Bavaria.

The Ostarrîchi Document in full
The first appearance of "Ostarrîchi"
The first appearance of the word "Ostarrîchi", circled in red and magnified. Modern Austria honours this document, dated 996, as the founding of the nation.
Other Languages
Acèh: Austria
Адыгэбзэ: Аустриэ
адыгабзэ: Аустрие
Afrikaans: Oostenryk
Akan: Austria
Alemannisch: Österreich
አማርኛ: ኦስትሪያ
Ænglisc: Ēastrīce
Аҧсшәа: Австриа
العربية: النمسا
aragonés: Austria
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܢܡܣܐ
armãneashti: Austria
arpetan: Ôtrich·e
অসমীয়া: অষ্ট্ৰিয়া
asturianu: Austria
Avañe'ẽ: Áuteria
авар: Авустур
Aymar aru: Austriya
azərbaycanca: Avstriya
تۆرکجه: اوتریش
Bân-lâm-gú: Ò-tē-lī
башҡортса: Австрия
беларуская: Аўстрыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Аўстрыя
भोजपुरी: ऑस्ट्रिया
Bikol Central: Austriya
Bislama: Austria
български: Австрия
Boarisch: Östareich
bosanski: Austrija
brezhoneg: Aostria
буряад: Австри
català: Àustria
Чӑвашла: Австри
Cebuano: Awstriya
čeština: Rakousko
Chamoru: Austria
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Austria
chiShona: Austria
chiTumbuka: Austria
corsu: Austria
Cymraeg: Awstria
dansk: Østrig
davvisámegiella: Nuortariika
Deitsch: Eestereich
Deutsch: Österreich
ދިވެހިބަސް: އޮސްޓްރިއާ
dolnoserbski: Awstriska
डोटेली: अस्ट्रिया
ཇོང་ཁ: ཨས་ཊི་ཡ
eesti: Austria
Ελληνικά: Αυστρία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Àustria
español: Austria
Esperanto: Aŭstrio
estremeñu: Áustria
euskara: Austria
eʋegbe: Austria
فارسی: اتریش
Fiji Hindi: Austria
føroyskt: Eysturríki
français: Autriche
Frysk: Eastenryk
Fulfulde: Otiris
furlan: Austrie
Gaeilge: An Ostair
Gaelg: Yn Austeyr
Gagauz: Avstriya
Gàidhlig: An Ostair
galego: Austria
ГӀалгӀай: Австри
ગુજરાતી: ઑસ્ટ્રિયા
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: ऑस्ट्रिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: O-thi-li
한국어: 오스트리아
Hausa: Austriya
Hawaiʻi: ʻAukekulia
հայերեն: Ավստրիա
Արեւմտահայերէն: Աւստրիա
हिन्दी: ऑस्ट्रिया
hornjoserbsce: Awstriska
hrvatski: Austrija
Ido: Austria
Igbo: Austria
Ilokano: Austria
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: অস্ট্রিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Austria
interlingua: Austria
Interlingue: Austria
Ирон: Австри
isiZulu: I-Ostriya
íslenska: Austurríki
italiano: Austria
עברית: אוסטריה
Jawa: Ostenrik
Kabɩyɛ: Otirisi
kalaallisut: Østrigi
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಆಸ್ಟ್ರಿಯ
Kapampangan: Austria
къарачай-малкъар: Австрия
ქართული: ავსტრია
kaszëbsczi: Aùstriô
қазақша: Аустрия
kernowek: Estrych
Kinyarwanda: Ositiriya
Kiswahili: Austria
коми: Австрия
Kongo: Autriche
Kreyòl ayisyen: Otrich
kurdî: Awistirya
Кыргызча: Австрия
кырык мары: Австри
Ladino: Austria
лакку: Австрия
لۊری شومالی: اوتریش
latgaļu: Austreja
Latina: Austria
latviešu: Austrija
Lëtzebuergesch: Éisträich
лезги: Австрия
lietuvių: Austrija
Ligure: Austria
Limburgs: Oosteriek
lingála: Otrish
Lingua Franca Nova: Osteraic
Livvinkarjala: Avstrii
la .lojban.: ysteraic
lumbaart: Austria
magyar: Ausztria
मैथिली: अस्ट्रिया
македонски: Австрија
Malagasy: Aotrisy
മലയാളം: ഓസ്ട്രിയ
Malti: Awstrija
Māori: Ateria
მარგალური: ავსტრია
مصرى: النمسا
مازِرونی: اتریش
Bahasa Melayu: Austria
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ó̤-dê-lé
Mirandés: Áustria
мокшень: Австрие
монгол: Австри
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဩစတြီးယားနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Austria
Dorerin Naoero: Oteriya
Nederlands: Oostenrijk
Nedersaksies: Oostnriek
नेपाली: अस्ट्रिया
नेपाल भाषा: अस्त्रिया
Napulitano: Austria
нохчийн: Австри
Nordfriisk: Ååstenrik
Norfuk / Pitkern: Ostriya
norsk: Østerrike
norsk nynorsk: Austerrike
Nouormand: Autriche
Novial: Austria
occitan: Àustria
олык марий: Австрий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଅଷ୍ଟ୍ରିଆ
Oromoo: Oostiriyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Avstriya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਆਸਟਰੀਆ
Pälzisch: Österreich
Pangasinan: Austria
پنجابی: آسٹریا
Papiamentu: Oustria
پښتو: اتريش
Patois: Aschria
Перем Коми: Австрия
Picard: Otriche
Piemontèis: Àustria
Tok Pisin: Ostria
Plattdüütsch: Öösterriek
polski: Austria
Ποντιακά: Αυστρία
português: Áustria
Qaraqalpaqsha: Avstriya
qırımtatarca: Avstriya
Ripoarisch: Österreich
română: Austria
romani čhib: Austriya
rumantsch: Austria
Runa Simi: Awstiriya
русиньскый: Австрія
русский: Австрия
саха тыла: Австрия
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱚᱥᱴᱨᱤᱭᱟ
Gagana Samoa: Oseteria
संस्कृतम्: आस्ट्रिया
sardu: Àustria
Scots: Austrick
Seeltersk: Aastriek
Sesotho: Austria
Sesotho sa Leboa: Austria
shqip: Austria
sicilianu: Austria
Simple English: Austria
سنڌي: آسٽريا
SiSwati: IYosithiya
slovenčina: Rakúsko
slovenščina: Avstrija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Аѵстрїꙗ
ślůnski: Austrijo
Soomaaliga: Awstriya
کوردی: نەمسا
Sranantongo: Ostriyakondre
српски / srpski: Аустрија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Austrija
Basa Sunda: Austria
suomi: Itävalta
svenska: Österrike
Tagalog: Austria
Taqbaylit: Tutrict
tarandíne: Austrie
татарча/tatarça: Австрия
తెలుగు: ఆస్ట్రియా
tetun: Áustria
тоҷикӣ: Австрия
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎠᏍᏟᏯ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Austria
Türkçe: Avusturya
Türkmençe: Awstriýa
Twi: Austria
тыва дыл: Австрия
удмурт: Австрия
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Austria
українська: Австрія
اردو: آسٹریا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئاۋستىرىيە
Vahcuengh: Audeihleih
vèneto: Àustria
vepsän kel’: Avstrii
Tiếng Việt: Áo
Volapük: Lösterän
Võro: Austria
walon: Otriche
文言: 奧地利
West-Vlams: Ôostnryk
Winaray: Austrya
Wolof: Otris
吴语: 奥地利
Xitsonga: Austria
ייִדיש: עסטרייך
Yorùbá: Austríà
粵語: 奧地利
Zazaki: Awıstırya
Zeêuws: Oesteriek
žemaitėška: Austrėjė
中文: 奥地利