Australian Capital Territory

Australian Capital Territory
Flag of the Australian Capital TerritoryCoat of Arms of the Australian Capital Territory
FlagCoat of arms
Slogan or nicknameThe Nation's Capital
Motto(s)For the Queen, the Law, and the People
Map of Australia with the Australian Capital Territory highlighted
Other Australian states and territories
Coordinates35°27′00″S 148°58′50″E / 35°27′00″S 148°58′50″E / -35.45000; 148.98056
Capital cityCanberra
GovernmentConstitutional monarchy
 • Chief MinisterAndrew Barr (ALP)
Australian territory 
 • Transferred to Commonwealth1911
 • Responsible government1988
 • Total2,358 km² (8th)
910 sq mi
 • Land2,280 km²
880 sq mi
 • Water77.6 km² (3.29%)
30 sq mi
(December 2018)[1]
 • Population423,811 (7th)
 • Density185.88/km² (1st)
481.4 /sq mi
 • Highest pointBimberi Peak
1,912 m (6,273 ft)
 • Lowest pointMurrumbidgee River
429 m (1,407 ft)
Gross territorial product
 • Product ($m)$39,442[2] (6th)
 • Product per capita$94,831 (3rd)
Time zone(s)UTC+10 (AEST)
Federal representation 
 • House seats3/151
 • Senate seats2/76
 • PostalACT
 • ISO 3166-2AU-ACT
 • FloralRoyal bluebell[3]
 • BirdGang-gang cockatoo[4]
 • ColoursBlue and gold[5]

The Australian Capital Territory, formerly known as the Federal Capital Territory until 1938 and commonly referred to as the ACT, is a federal territory of Australia containing the Australian capital city of Canberra and some surrounding townships. It is located in the south-east of the country and is an enclave within the state of New South Wales. Founded after federation as the seat of government for the new nation, all important institutions of the Australian federal government are centred in the Territory.

On 1 January 1901, federation of the colonies of Australia was achieved. Section 125 of the new Australian Constitution provided that land, situated in New South Wales and at least 100 miles (160 km) from Sydney, would be ceded to the new federal government. Following discussion and exploration of various areas within New South Wales, the Seat of Government Act 1908 was passed in 1908 which specified a capital in the Yass-Canberra region. The territory was transferred to the Commonwealth by New South Wales in 1911, two years prior to the capital city being founded and formally named as Canberra in 1913.

While the overwhelming majority of the population reside in the city of Canberra in the ACT's north-east, the Territory also includes some surrounding townships such as Williamsdale, Naas, Uriarra, Tharwa and Hall. The ACT also includes the Namadgi National Park which comprises the majority of land area of the Territory. Despite a common misconception, the Jervis Bay Territory is not part of the ACT although the laws of the Australian Capital Territory apply as if Jervis Bay did form part of the ACT.[6] The Territory has a relatively dry, contintental climate experiencing warm to hot summers and cool to cold winters.

The Australian Capital Territory is home to many important institutions of the federal government, national monuments and museums. This includes the Parliament of Australia, the High Court of Australia, the Australian Defence Force Academy and the Australian War Memorial. It also hosts the majority of foreign embassies in Australia as well as regional headquarters of many international organisations, not-for-profit groups, lobbying groups and professional associations. Several major universities also have campuses in the ACT including the Australian National University, the University of Canberra, the University of New South Wales, Charles Sturt University and the Australian Catholic University.

A locally elected legislative assembly has governed the Territory since 1988. However, the Commonwealth maintains authority over the Territory and may overturn local laws. It still maintains control over the area known as the Parliamentary Triangle through the National Capital Authority. Residents of the Territory elect three members to the House of Representatives and two Senators to the Australian Senate.

With 423,800 residents, the Australian Capital Territory is the second smallest mainland state or territory by population. At the 2016 census, the median weekly income for people in the Territory aged over 15 was $998 and higher than the national average of $662.[7] The average level of degree qualification in the ACT is also higher than the national average. Within the ACT, 37.1% of the population hold a bachelor's degree level or above education compared to the national figure of 20%.[7]


Aboriginal inhabitants

Indigenous Australian peoples have long inhabited the area.[8] Evidence indicates habitation dating back at least 25,000 years.[9] It is possible that the area was inhabited for considerably longer, with evidence of an Aboriginal presence at Lake Mungo in south-western New South Wales dating back around 40,000 years.[10] The principal group occupying the region were the Ngunnawal people.[11]

European exploration

Following European settlement, the growth of the new colony of New South Wales led to an increasing demand for arable land.[11] Governor Lachlan Macquarie supported expeditions to open up new lands to the south of Sydney.[12] The 1820s saw further exploration in the Canberra area associated with the construction of a road from Sydney to the Goulburn plains. While working on the project, Charles Throsby learned of a nearby lake and river from the local Indigenous peoples and he accordingly sent Wild to lead a small party to investigate the site. The search was unsuccessful, but they did discover the Yass River and it is surmised that they would have set foot on part of the future territory.[13]

A second expedition was mounted shortly thereafter and they became the first Europeans to camp at the Molonglo (Ngambri) and Queanbeyan (Jullergung) Rivers.[8] However, they failed to find the Murrumbidgee River.[13] The issue of the Murrumbidgee was solved in 1821 when Throsby mounted a third expedition and successfully reached the watercourse, on the way providing the first detailed account of the land where Canberra now resides.[13] The last expedition in the region before settlement was undertaken by Allan Cunningham in 1824.[8] He reported that the region was suitable for grazing and the settlement of the Limestone Plains followed immediately thereafter.[14]

Early settlement

Map locations concentrated in the northeast and east, west and south largely deserted except for the southern tip
Significant homesteads, structures and settlements in the ACT prior to 1909.

The first land grant in the region was made to Joshua John Moore in 1823 and European settlement in the area began in 1824 with the construction of a homestead by his stockmen on what is now the Acton Peninsula.[12] Moore formally purchased the site in 1826 and named the property Canberry or Canberra.[8]

A significant influx of population and economic activity occurred around the 1850s goldrushes.[15] The goldrushes prompted the establishment of communication between Sydney and the region by way of the Cobb & Co coaches, which transported mail and passengers.[16] The first post offices opened in Ginninderra in 1859 and at Lanyon in 1860.[12]

During colonial times, the European communities of Ginninderra, Molonglo and Tuggeranong settled and farmed the surrounding land. The region was also called the Queanbeyan-Yass district, after the two largest towns in the area. The villages of Ginninderra and Tharwa developed to service the local agrarian communities.

During the first 20 years of settlement, there was only limited contact between the settlers and Aboriginal people. Over the succeeding years, the Ngunnawal and other local indigenous people effectively ceased to exist as cohesive and independent communities adhering to their traditional ways of life.[12] Those who had not succumbed to disease and other predations either dispersed to the local settlements or were relocated to more distant Aboriginal reserves set up by the New South Wales government in the latter part of the 19th century.[citation needed]

Creation of the territory

Single wooden cabin and many white tents in open dusty field with single tree in foreground
The Federal Capital survey camp was established c. 1909. An extensive survey of the ACT was completed by Charles Scrivener and his team in 1915.

In 1898, a referendum on a proposed Constitution was held in four of the colonies – New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania. Although the referendum achieved a majority in all four colonies, the New South Wales referendum failed to gain the minimum number of votes needed for the bill to pass. Following this result, a meeting of the four Premiers in 1898 heard from George Reid, the Premier of New South Wales, who argued that locating the future capital in New South Wales would be sufficient to ensure the passage of the Bill. The 1899 referendum on this revised bill was successful and passed with sufficient numbers.[17] Section 125 of the Australian Constitution thus provided that, following Federation in 1901, land would be ceded freely to the new Federal Government.[citation needed]

This, however, left open the question of where to locate the capital. In 1906 and after significant deliberations, New South Wales agreed to cede sufficient land on the condition that it was in the Yass-Canberra region,[8] this site being closer to Sydney.[18] Initially, Dalgety, New South Wales remained at the forefront, but Yass-Canberra prevailed after voting by federal representatives.[13] The Seat of Government Act 1908 was passed in 1908, which repealed the 1904 Act and specified a capital in the Yass-Canberra region.[8][19] Government surveyor Charles Scrivener was deployed to the region in the same year to map out a specific site and, after an extensive search, settled upon the present location.[citation needed]

The territory was transferred to the Commonwealth by New South Wales in 1911, two years before the naming of Canberra as the national capital in 1913.[citation needed]

Development throughout 20th century

Five people on stone platform, from left: Man with mustache in military dress uniform and bushy tall black hat with chinstrap; man in military uniform with many medals and old fashioned naval officer's hat; man with white hair in suit with long dark coat and white collar; woman in Victorian dress with white hat; man with beard and wild hair in suit. Crowd and flags in background.
The ceremony for the naming of Canberra, 12 March 1913. Prime Minister Andrew Fisher is standing, centre, in dark suit. To his right is the Governor-General, Lord Denman, and to his left, Lady Denman.

In 1911, an international competition to design the future capital was held, which was won by the Chicago architect Walter Burley Griffin in 1912.[12] The official naming of Canberra occurred on 12 March 1913 and construction began immediately.[12]

After Griffin's departure following difficulty in implementing his project,[20] the Federal Capital Advisory Committee was established in 1920 to advise the government of the construction efforts.[8] The Committee had limited success meeting its goals. However, the chairman, John Sulman, was instrumental in applying the ideas of the garden city movement to Griffin's plan. The Committee was replaced in 1925 by the Federal Capital Commission.[8]

In 1930, the ACT Advisory Council was established to advise the Minister for Territories on the community's concerns. In 1934, Supreme Court of the Australian Capital Territory was established.[citation needed]

From 1938 to 1957, the National Capital Planning and Development Committee continued to plan the further expansion of Canberra. However, the National Capital Planning and Development Committee did not have executive power, and decisions were made on the development of Canberra without the Committee's consultation.[16] During this time, Prime Minister Robert Menzies regarded the state of the national capital as an embarrassment.[21]

After World War II, there was a shortage of housing and office space in Canberra.[22] A Senate Select Committee hearing was held in 1954 to address its development requirements. This Committee recommended the creation of a single planning body with executive power. Consequently, the National Capital Planning and Development Committee was replaced by the National Capital Development Commission in 1957.[23] The National Capital Development Commission ended four decades of disputes over the shape and design of Lake Burley Griffin and construction was completed in 1964 after four years of work. The completion of the centrepiece of Griffin's design finally the laid the platform for the development of Griffin's Parliamentary Triangle.[21]


In 1988, the new Minister for the Australian Capital Territory Gary Punch received a report recommending the abolition of the National Capital Development Commission and the formation of a locally elected government. Punch recommended that the Hawke government accept the report's recommendations and subsequently Clyde Holding introduced legislation to grant self-government to the Territory in October 1988.[24]

The enactment on 6 December 1988 of the Australian Capital Territory (Self-Government) Act 1988 established the framework for self-government.[25] The first election for the 17-member Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly was held on 4 March 1989.[26]

The initial years of self-government were difficult and unstable.[27] A majority of ACT residents had opposed self-government and had it imposed upon them by the federal parliament. At the first election, 4 of the 17 seats were won by anti-self-government single-issue parties due to a protest vote by disgruntled territorians and a total of 8 were won by minor parties and independents.[27]

In 1992, Labor won eight seats and the minor parties and independents won only three. Stability increased, and in 1995, Kate Carnell became the first elected Liberal chief minister. In 1998, Carnell became the first chief minister to be re-elected.

Other Languages
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Аўстралійская сталічная тэрыторыя
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Au-chû Sú-tû Liâng-thi
Bahasa Indonesia: Wilayah Ibu Kota Australia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ó̤-ciŭ Siū-dŭ Dĕk-kṳ̆
Norfuk / Pitkern: Ostrielyan Kapitel Teritrii
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Teritorija glavnog grada Australije