Commonwealth of Australia

A map of the eastern hemisphere centred on Australia, using an orthographic projection.
Commonwealth of Australia, including the Australian territorial claim in the Antarctic
35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / -35.30806; 149.12444
Largest citySydney
National languageEnglish[N 2]
GovernmentFederal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
David Hurley
Scott Morrison
Michael McCormack
• Treasurer
Josh Frydenberg
Susan Kiefel
House of Representatives
1 January 1901
9 October 1942 (with effect
from 3 September 1939)
3 March 1986
• Total
7,692,024 km2 (2,969,907 sq mi) (6th)
• Water (%)
• 2020 estimate
25,591,300[6] (51st)
• 2016 census
• Density
3.3/km2 (8.5/sq mi) (236th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$1.365 trillion[8] (19th)
• Per capita
$53,379[8] (17th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$1.376 trillion[8] (13th)
• Per capita
$53,825[8] (10th)
Gini (2016)Positive decrease 33.0[9]
medium · 22nd
HDI (2018)Increase 0.938[10]
very high · 6th
CurrencyAustralian dollar (AUD)
Time zoneUTC+8; +9.5; +10 (Various[N 4])
• Summer (DST)
UTC+8; +9.5; +10;
+10.5; +11
(Various[N 4])
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+61
ISO 3166 codeAU

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia,[12] is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 26 million[6] is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard.[13] Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.

Indigenous Australians inhabited the continent for about 65,000 years prior to the first arrival of Dutch explorers in the early 17th century, who named it New Holland. In 1770, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the time of an 1850s gold rush, most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established. On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories.[14]

Australia is the oldest,[15] flattest[16] and driest inhabited continent,[17][18] with the least fertile soils.[19][20] It has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi).[21] A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. Its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world.[22] Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications, banking, and manufacturing.[23][24][25]

Australia is a highly developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy. It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income.[26] It is a regional power and has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure.[27] Australia has the world's eighth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 29% of the population.[28][29] Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks highly in quality of life, health, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights,[30] with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys.[31] Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum, and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism.


The name Australia (pronounced ə/ in Australian English[32]) is derived from the Latin Terra Australis ("southern land"), a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times.[33] When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was naturally applied to the new territories.[N 5]

Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 (as Nieuw-Holland) and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts.[N 6] The name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, and an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth".[39] Several famous early cartographers also made use of the word Australia on maps. Gerard Mercator (1512–1594) used the phrase climata australia on his double cordiform map of the world of 1538, as did Gemma Frisius (1508–1555), who was Mercator's teacher and collaborator, on his own cordiform wall map in 1540. Australia appears in a book on astronomy by Cyriaco Jacob zum Barth published in Frankfurt-am-Main in 1545.[40]

The first time that Australia appears to have been officially used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst.[41] In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted.[42] In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially by that name.[43] The first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office.[44]

Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under" (usually shortened to just "Down Under"). Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", and "the Wide Brown Land". The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country".[45]

Other Languages
Acèh: Australia
Адыгэбзэ: Аустралиэ
адыгабзэ: Аустралие
Afrikaans: Australië
Alemannisch: Australien
አማርኛ: አውስትራልያ
Ænglisc: Australia
Аҧсшәа: Австралиа
العربية: أستراليا
aragonés: Australia
arpetan: Ôstralia
asturianu: Australia
Avañe'ẽ: Autarália
Aymar aru: Australla
azərbaycanca: Avstraliya
تۆرکجه: اوسترالیا
Bali: Ostrali
bamanankan: Ostralia
Banjar: Australia
Bân-lâm-gú: Ò-chiu
башҡортса: Австралия
беларуская: Аўстралія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Аўстралія
भोजपुरी: आस्ट्रेलिया
Bikol Central: Australya
Bislama: Ostrelia
български: Австралия
Boarisch: Australien
bosanski: Australija
brezhoneg: Aostralia
буряад: Австрали
català: Austràlia
Чӑвашла: Австрали
Cebuano: Ostralya
čeština: Austrálie
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Australia
chiShona: Australia
chiTumbuka: Australia
corsu: Australia
Cymraeg: Awstralia
dansk: Australien
davvisámegiella: Australia
Deitsch: Australie
Deutsch: Australien
ދިވެހިބަސް: އޮސްޓަރުލިޔާ
dolnoserbski: Awstralska
eesti: Austraalia
Ελληνικά: Αυστραλία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Austràglia
эрзянь: Австралия
español: Australia
Esperanto: Aŭstralio
estremeñu: Austrália
euskara: Australia
eʋegbe: Australia
فارسی: استرالیا
Fiji Hindi: Australia
føroyskt: Avstralia
français: Australie
furlan: Australie
Gaeilge: An Astráil
Gagauz: Avstraliya
Gàidhlig: Astràilia
galego: Australia
ГӀалгӀай: Астрали
贛語: 澳大利亞
Gĩkũyũ: Australia
ગુજરાતી: ઑસ્ટ્રેલિયા
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: ऑस्ट्रेलिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Au-chû
Hausa: Asturaliya
Hawaiʻi: ‘Aukekulelia
հայերեն: Ավստրալիա
Արեւմտահայերէն: Աւստրալիա
hornjoserbsce: Awstralska
hrvatski: Australija
Igbo: Ostraliya
Ilokano: Australia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: অস্ট্রেলিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Australia
interlingua: Australia
Interlingue: Australia
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐊᔅᑦᕌᓕᐊ
isiZulu: I-Ostreliya
íslenska: Ástralía
italiano: Australia
עברית: אוסטרליה
Jawa: Ostrali
Kabɩyɛ: Ositraalii
kalaallisut: Australia
Kapampangan: Australia
къарачай-малкъар: Австралия
ქართული: ავსტრალია
kaszëbsczi: Aùstralëjô
қазақша: Аустралия
kernowek: Ostrali
Kinyarwanda: Ositaraliya
Kirundi: Australiya
Kiswahili: Australia
Kongo: Australia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Ostrali
kurdî: Awistralya
Кыргызча: Австралия
кырык мары: Австрали
Ladino: Australia
latgaļu: Australeja
Latina: Australia
latviešu: Austrālija
Lëtzebuergesch: Australien
лезги: Австралия
lietuvių: Australija
Ligure: Australia
Limburgs: Australië
lingála: Ostralía
Lingua Franca Nova: Australia
Livvinkarjala: Avstrualii
la .lojban.: sralygu'e
lumbaart: Australia
македонски: Австралија
Malagasy: Aostralia
മലയാളം: ഓസ്ട്രേലിയ
Malti: Awstralja
Māori: Ahitereiria
მარგალური: ავსტრალია
مازِرونی: استرالیا
Bahasa Melayu: Australia
Minangkabau: Australia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ó̤-ciŭ
Mirandés: Oustrália
мокшень: Австралие
монгол: Австрали
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဩစတြေးလျနိုင်ငံ
Dorerin Naoero: Otereiriya
Nederlands: Australië (land)
Nedersaksies: Australië (laand)
नेपाल भाषा: अस्त्रेलिया
Napulitano: Australia
нохчийн: Австрали
Nordfriisk: Austraalien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Ostrielya
norsk: Australia
norsk nynorsk: Australia
Nouormand: Australie
Novial: Australia
occitan: Austràlia
олык марий: Австралий
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Avstraliya (davlat)
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਆਸਟਰੇਲੀਆ
پنجابی: آسٹریلیا
Papiamentu: Australia
Patois: Aschrielia
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អូស្ត្រាលី
Picard: Australie
Piemontèis: Australia
Tok Pisin: Ostrelia
Plattdüütsch: Australien
polski: Australia
Ποντιακά: Αυστραλία
português: Austrália
Qaraqalpaqsha: Avstraliya
qırımtatarca: Avstraliya
reo tahiti: Auterāria
Ripoarisch: Australien
română: Australia
rumantsch: Australia
Runa Simi: Awstralya
русиньскый: Австралія
русский: Австралия
саха тыла: Аустралиа
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱚᱥᱴᱨᱮᱞᱤᱭᱟ
Gagana Samoa: Ausetalia
संस्कृतम्: आस्ट्रेलिया
Sängö: Ostralïi
sardu: Australia
Scots: Australie
Sesotho sa Leboa: Australia (naga)
shqip: Australia
sicilianu: Australia
Simple English: Australia
slovenčina: Austrália (štát)
slovenščina: Avstralija
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Аѵстралїꙗ
ślůnski: Australijo
Soomaaliga: Australia
کوردی: ئوسترالیا
српски / srpski: Аустралија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Australija
Sunda: Australia
suomi: Australia
svenska: Australien
Tagalog: Australia
Taqbaylit: Usṭralya
tarandíne: Australie
татарча/tatarça: Австралия
tetun: Austrália
ትግርኛ: ኣውስትራሊያ
тоҷикӣ: Австралия
Türkçe: Avustralya
Türkmençe: Awstraliýa
тыва дыл: Австралия
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Australia
українська: Австралія
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئاۋستىرالىيە
Vahcuengh: Audaliya
vèneto: Austrałia
vepsän kel’: Avstralii
Tiếng Việt: Úc
Volapük: Laustralän
Võro: Austraalia
walon: Ostraleye
文言: 澳大利亞
West-Vlams: Australië (land)
Winaray: Australya
Wolof: Óstraali
吴语: 澳大利亚
ייִדיש: אויסטראליע
Yorùbá: Austrálíà
粵語: 澳洲
Zazaki: Australya
Zeêuws: Australië
žemaitėška: Australėjė
中文: 澳大利亚
kriyòl gwiyannen: Lostrali
Sakizaya: Australia