Augustus

Augustus
Statue-Augustus.jpg
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Reign16 January 27 BC –
19 August AD 14
PredecessorOffice established
SuccessorTiberius
BornGaius Octavius Thurinus
23 September 63 BC
Rome, Roman Republic
Died19 August AD 14 (aged 75)
Nola, Italia, Roman Empire
Burial
Spouse
IssueJulia the Elder
Regnal name
Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus
HouseJulio-Claudian dynasty
Father
MotherAtia Balba Caesonia
Roman imperial dynasties
Julio-Claudian dynasty
Augustus Bevilacqua Glyptothek Munich 317.jpg
A bust of Augustus, wearing the Civic Crown. Glyptothek, Munich.
Chronology
Augustus27 BC – 14 AD
Tiberius14–37 AD
Caligula37–41 AD
Claudius41–54 AD
Nero54–68 AD
Family
Gens Julia
Gens Claudia
Julio-Claudian family tree
Category:Julio-Claudian dynasty
Succession
Preceded by
Roman Republic
Followed by
Year of the Four Emperors

Augustus (Latin: Imperator Caesar Divi filius Augustus;[nb 1] 23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.[nb 2] His status as the founder of the Roman Principate has consolidated an enduring legacy as one of the most effective and controversial leaders in human history.[1][2]

He was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia. His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir. Along with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus, he formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members. Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, and Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by Octavian in 31 BC.

After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward façade of the free Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, the executive magistrates, and the legislative assemblies. In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and those of tribune and censor. It took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule. He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself Princeps Civitatis ("First Citizen of the State"). The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire.

The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana. The Roman world was largely free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and the year-long civil war known as the "Year of the Four Emperors" over the imperial succession. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia, expanding possessions in Africa, and completing the conquest of Hispania, but suffered a major setback in Germania. Beyond the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region of client states and made peace with the Parthian Empire through diplomacy. He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, and rebuilt much of the city during his reign. Augustus died in AD 14 at the age of 75, probably from natural causes. However, there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him. He was succeeded as emperor by his adopted son (also stepson and former son-in-law) Tiberius.

Name

As a consequence of Roman customs, society, and personal preference, Augustus (s-/; Classical Latin: [awˈɡʊstʊs]) was known by many names throughout his life:

  • Gaius Octavius Thurinus (s/): He received his birth name, after his biological father, in 63 BC. "Gaius" was his praenomen, "Octavius" was his nomen, and "Thurinus" was his cognomen.[3][4] Later, his rival Mark Antony used the name "Thurinus" as an insult, to which Augustus replied, surprised that "using his old name was thought to be an insult".[5][6][6]
  • Gaius Julius Caesar: After he was adopted by Julius Caesar, he adopted Caesar's name in accordance with Roman naming conventions.[7] While he dropped all references to the Octavius family, people colloquially added the epithet Octavianus to his legal name, either to differentiate him from his adoptive father or to highlight his more modest origins. Modern historians refer to him using the anglicized form "Octavian" (n/) between 44 BC and 27 BC.[8]
  • Gaius Julius Caesar Divi Filius: Two years after his adoption, he founded the Temple of Caesar additionally adding the title Divi Filius ("Son of the Divine") to his name in attempt to strengthen his political ties to Caesar's former soldiers, following the deification of Caesar.[9]
  • Imperator Caesar Divi Filius: From 38 BC, Octavian opted to use Imperator, the title by which troops hailed their leader after military success. His name is roughly translated as "Commander Caesar, Son of the Divine".
  • Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus: Following his 31 BC defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra, partly on his own insistence, the Roman Senate granted him the additional name, "Augustus".,[4] which he added to his previous names thereafter.[10] Historians use this name to refer to him from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.[11]
Other Languages
Alemannisch: Augustus
አማርኛ: አውግስጦስ
Ænglisc: Augustus
aragonés: César Augusto
armãneashti: Augustus
asturianu: César Augustu
Aymar aru: César Augusto
azərbaycanca: Oktavian Avqust
تۆرکجه: آقوستوس
Bân-lâm-gú: Augustus
Basa Banyumasan: Augustus
башҡортса: Октавиан Август
беларуская: Актавіян Аўгуст
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Актавіян Аўгуст
Bikol Central: Caesar Augustus
Bislama: Augustus
български: Октавиан Август
Boarisch: Augustus
català: August
Cebuano: Augusto
čeština: Augustus
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Augustus
Chi-Chewa: Augustus
corsu: Augustu
Cymraeg: Augustus
dansk: Augustus
Deutsch: Augustus
ދިވެހިބަސް: Augustus
dolnoserbski: Augustus Caesar
eesti: Augustus
español: Augusto
Esperanto: Aŭgusto Cezaro
estremeñu: Cesa Augustu
euskara: Zesar Augusto
فارسی: آگوستوس
Fiji Hindi: Augustus
føroyskt: Augustus
français: Auguste
furlan: August
Gaeilge: Ágastas
贛語: 屋大維
Gĩkũyũ: Augustus
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Augustus
Hausa: Augustus
Hawaiʻi: Augustus
हिन्दी: ऑगस्टस
hrvatski: August
Ilokano: Augusto
Bahasa Indonesia: Augustus
interlingua: Cesare Augusto
Interlingue: Augustus
isiXhosa: Augustus
íslenska: Ágústus
italiano: Augusto
Basa Jawa: Augustus
Kabɩyɛ: César Auguste
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಅಗಸ್ಟಸ್
Kiswahili: Augusto
Kongo: Augustus
kurdî: Augustus
latgaļu: Augustus
latviešu: Oktaviāns
Lëtzebuergesch: Augustus
lietuvių: Augustas
Ligure: Aogusto
Limburgs: Keizer Augustus
Lingua Franca Nova: Augusto
Livvinkarjala: Augustus
македонски: Октавијан Август
Malagasy: Auguste
മലയാളം: അഗസ്റ്റസ്
मराठी: ऑगस्टस
მარგალური: ავგუსტუსი
Bahasa Melayu: Augustus
Baso Minangkabau: Augustus
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Augustus
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဩဂတ်စတက်ဆီဇာ
Nāhuatl: Augustus
Dorerin Naoero: Augustus
Nederlands: Augustus (keizer)
Napulitano: Augusto
norsk: Augustus
norsk nynorsk: Augustus av Romarriket
occitan: August
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଅଗଷ୍ଟସ
Oromoo: Awugustuus
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Avgust (imperator)
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਆਗਸਟਸ ਕੈਸਰ
پنجابی: آگسٹس
Patois: Agostos
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អូហ្គុសទុស
Piemontèis: Otavian August
Tok Pisin: Augustus Caesar
Plattdüütsch: Augustus
português: Augusto
Qaraqalpaqsha: Oktavian Avgust
rumantsch: Augustus
Runa Simi: Augustus
русиньскый: Октавіан Авґуст
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱚᱜᱟᱥᱴᱟᱥ
Gagana Samoa: Aokuso Kaisara
संस्कृतम्: आगस्टस कैसर
Scots: Augustus
Seeltersk: Octavianus
shqip: Augusti
sicilianu: Cèsari Augustu
සිංහල: ඔගස්ටස්
Simple English: Augustus
slovenčina: Octavianus Augustus
slovenščina: Gaj Avgust Oktavijan
Soomaaliga: Augustus Octavian
کوردی: ئەگوستوس
српски / srpski: Октавијан Август
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: August (rimski car)
Basa Sunda: Octavianus
suomi: Augustus
svenska: Augustus
Tagalog: Cesar Augusto
татарча/tatarça: Октавиан Август
తెలుగు: ఆగస్టస్
Türkçe: Augustus
Türkmençe: Oktawian Awgust
українська: Октавіан Август
اردو: آگستس
vèneto: Augustus
vepsän kel’: Oktavian August
Tiếng Việt: Augustus
Volapük: Augustus
Võro: Augustus
文言: 奧古斯都
West-Vlams: Augustus
Winaray: Augustus
吴语: 奧古斯都
ייִדיש: אויגוסטוס
Yorùbá: Augustus
粵語: 奧古斯都
Zazaki: Augustus
Zeêuws: Augustus
žemaitėška: Augosts
中文: 奥古斯都