Attila

Attila
Attila ábrázolás Wilhelm Dilich Ungarische Chronica.jpg
A 17th-century depiction of Attila the Hun from Ungarische Chronica, written by German writer Wilhelm Dilich
King and chieftain of the Hunnic Empire
Reign434–453
PredecessorBleda and Ruga
SuccessorEllac, Dengizich, Ernak
Bornc. 406[1]:208[2]:202
DiedMarch 453
(aged 46–47)
ConsortKreka
Ildico
FatherMundzuk
No known image of Attila exists from life. Above is a likeness by artist and historian George S. Stuart created from his physical description mentioned in historical records.

Attila (ə/; fl. c. 406–453), frequently called Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453. He was also the leader of a tribal empire consisting of Huns, Ostrogoths, and Alans among others, in Central and Eastern Europe.

During his reign, he was one of the most feared enemies of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires. He crossed the Danube twice and plundered the Balkans, but was unable to take Constantinople. His unsuccessful campaign in Persia was followed in 441 by an invasion of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, the success of which emboldened Attila to invade the West.[3] He also attempted to conquer Roman Gaul (modern France), crossing the Rhine in 451 and marching as far as Aurelianum (Orléans) before being defeated at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains.

He subsequently invaded Italy, devastating the northern provinces, but was unable to take Rome. He planned for further campaigns against the Romans, but died in 453. After Attila's death, his close adviser, Ardaric of the Gepids, led a Germanic revolt against Hunnic rule, after which the Hunnic Empire quickly collapsed.

Appearance and character

Figure of Attila in a museum in Hungary.

There is no surviving first-hand account of Attila's appearance, but there is a possible second-hand source provided by Jordanes, who cites a description given by Priscus.[4][5]

He was a man born into the world to shake the nations, the scourge of all lands, who in some way terrified all mankind by the dreadful rumors noised abroad concerning him. He was haughty in his walk, rolling his eyes hither and thither, so that the power of his proud spirit appeared in the movement of his body. He was indeed a lover of war, yet restrained in action, mighty in counsel, gracious to suppliants and lenient to those who were once received into his protection. Short of stature, with a broad chest and a large head; his eyes were small, his beard thin and sprinkled with grey; and he had a flat nose and swarthy skin, showing evidence of his origin.[6]:182–183

Some scholars have suggested that this description is typically East Asian, because it has all the combined features that fit the physical type of people from Eastern Asia, and Attila's ancestors may have come from there.[5][7]:202 Other historians also believed that the same descriptions were also evident on some Scythian people.[8][9]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Attila die Hun
Ænglisc: Ætla
العربية: أتيلا الهوني
asturianu: Atila
azərbaycanca: Attila
تۆرکجه: آتیلا
বাংলা: আতিলা
Bân-lâm-gú: Attila
башҡортса: Аттила
беларуская: Атыла
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Атыла
български: Атила
bosanski: Atila
brezhoneg: Attila
català: Àtila
Чӑвашла: Аттил
čeština: Attila
Cymraeg: Attila
dansk: Attila
Deutsch: Attila
eesti: Attila
Ελληνικά: Αττίλας
español: Atila
Esperanto: Atilo la Huno
estremeñu: Atila
euskara: Atila
فارسی: آتیلا
français: Attila
Frysk: Attila
galego: Atila
贛語: 阿第拉
한국어: 아틸라
հայերեն: Աթթիլա
हिन्दी: अत्तिला
hrvatski: Atila
Ido: Attila
Bahasa Indonesia: Attila
italiano: Attila
Jawa: Attila
ქართული: ატილა
қазақша: Еділ қаған
Кыргызча: Аттила
latviešu: Atila
lietuvių: Atila
Ligure: Attila
lumbaart: Atila
македонски: Атила
Malagasy: Attila
മലയാളം: ആറ്റില
مازِرونی: Ätilä
Bahasa Melayu: Atilla
Mirandés: Átila
монгол: Аттила хаан
Nederlands: Attila de Hun
नेपाल भाषा: अत्तिला हन
日本語: アッティラ
norsk: Attila
norsk nynorsk: Attila
occitan: Atila
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Attila
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਐਟਿਲਾ
پنجابی: اٹیلا
Patois: Atila di On
polski: Attyla
português: Átila
română: Attila
русский: Аттила
саха тыла: Аттила
संस्कृतम्: अटिला
Scots: Attila
shqip: Attila
sicilianu: Attila
Simple English: Attila the Hun
slovenčina: Atila (kráľ)
slovenščina: Atila
српски / srpski: Атила
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Atila
suomi: Attila
svenska: Attila
Tagalog: Atila ang Hun
தமிழ்: அட்டிலா
татарча/tatarça: Аттила
Türkçe: Attila
українська: Аттіла
اردو: ایٹلا
Tiếng Việt: Attila
Winaray: Attila
吴语: 阿提拉
Yorùbá: Àttílà
粵語: 阿提拉
中文: 阿提拉