Athens

Athens
Αθήνα
City
Acropolis of AthensGreek ParliamentZappeion HallAthens Olympic Sports ComplexMonastirakiAerial view from LycabettusAthens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article.
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Flag of Athens
Flag
Official seal of Athens
Seal
Nickname(s): Ιοστεφές άστυ (the violet-crowned city)
Το κλεινόν άστυ (the glorious city)
Athens is located in Greece
Athens
Athens
Location of Athens in Greece
Athens is located in Europe
Athens
Athens
Athens (Europe)
Coordinates: 37°59′02.3″N 23°43′40.1″E / 37°59′02.3″N 23°43′40.1″E / 37.983972; 23.727806
CountryGreece
Geographic regionCentral Greece
Administrative regionAttica
Regional unitCentral Athens
Districts7
Government
 • TypeMayor-council government
 • MayorGiorgos Kaminis (Ind.)
Area
 • Municipality38.964 km2 (15.044 sq mi)
 • Urban412 km2 (159 sq mi)
 • Metro2,928.717 km2 (1,130.784 sq mi)
Highest elevation338 m (1,109 ft)
Lowest elevation70.1 m (230.0 ft)
Population (2011)[2]
 • Municipality664,046
 • Rank1st urban, 1st metro in Greece
 • Urban3,090,508
 • Urban density7,500/km2 (19,000/sq mi)
 • Metro3,781,274[1]
Demonym(s)Athenian
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal codes10x xx, 11x xx, 120 xx
Telephone21
Vehicle registrationYxx, Zxx, Ixx
Patron saintDionysius the Areopagite (3 October)
Websitewww.cityofathens.gr

Athens (z/;[3] Greek: Αθήνα, Athína [aˈθina]; Ancient Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athênai [a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯]) is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years[4] and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th millennium BC.[5]

Classical Athens was a powerful city-state that emerged in conjunction with the seagoing development of the port of Piraeus, which had been a distinct city prior to its 5th century BC incorporation with Athens. A centre for the arts, learning and philosophy, home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum,[6][7] it is widely referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy,[8][9] largely because of its cultural and political impact on the European continent, and in particular the Romans.[10] In modern times, Athens is a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, financial, industrial, maritime, political and cultural life in Greece. In 2012, Athens was ranked the world's 39th richest city by purchasing power[11] and the 67th most expensive[12] in a UBS study.

Athens is a global city and one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe. It has a large financial sector, and its port Piraeus is both the largest passenger port in Europe,[13][14][15][16] and the second largest in the world.[17][dead link] The Municipality of Athens (also City of Athens) had a population of 664,046 (in 2011)[2] within its administrative limits, and a land area of 38.96 km2 (15.04 sq mi).[18][19] The urban area of Athens (Greater Athens and Greater Piraeus) extends beyond its administrative municipal city limits, with a population of 3,090,508 (in 2011)[20] over an area of 412 km2 (159 sq mi).[19] According to Eurostat[21] in 2011, the functional urban area (FUA) of Athens was the 9th most populous FUA in the European Union (the 6th most populous capital city of the EU), with a population of 3.8 million people. Athens is also the southernmost capital on the European mainland.

The heritage of the classical era is still evident in the city, represented by ancient monuments and works of art, the most famous of all being the Parthenon, considered a key landmark of early Western civilization. The city also retains Roman and Byzantine monuments, as well as a smaller number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Acropolis of Athens and the medieval Daphni Monastery. Landmarks of the modern era, dating back to the establishment of Athens as the capital of the independent Greek state in 1834, include the Hellenic Parliament and the so-called "architectural trilogy of Athens", consisting of the National Library of Greece, the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and the Academy of Athens. Athens is also home to several museums and cultural institutions, such as the National Archeological Museum, featuring the world's largest collection of ancient Greek antiquities, the Acropolis Museum, the Museum of Cycladic Art, the Benaki Museum and the Byzantine and Christian Museum. Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896, and 108 years later it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics, making it one of only a handful of cities to have hosted the Olympics more than once.[22]

Etymology

In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι (Athēnai, pronounced [a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯] in Classical Attic) a plural. In earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the singular form though, as Ἀθήνη (Athēnē).[23] It was possibly rendered in the plural later on, like those of Θῆβαι (Thêbai) and Μυκῆναι (Μukênai). The root of the word is probably not of Greek or Indo-European origin,[24] and is possibly a remnant of the Pre-Greek substrate of Attica.[24] In antiquity, it was debated whether Athens took its name from its patron goddess Athena (Attic Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, Ionic Ἀθήνη, Athēnē, and Doric Ἀθάνα, Athānā) or Athena took her name from the city.[25] Modern scholars now generally agree that the goddess takes her name from the city,[25] because the ending -ene is common in names of locations, but rare for personal names.[25] During the medieval period, the name of the city was rendered once again in the singular as Ἀθήνα. However, after the establishment of the modern Greek state, and partly due to the conservatism of the written language, Ἀθῆναι [aˈθine] became again the official name of the city and remained so until the abandonment of Katharevousa in the 1970s, when Ἀθήνα, Athína, became the official name.

According to the ancient Athenian founding myth, Athena, the goddess of wisdom, competed against Poseidon, the god of the seas, for patronage of the yet-unnamed city;[26] they agreed that whoever gave the Athenians the better gift would become their patron[26] and appointed Cecrops, the king of Athens, as the judge.[26] According to the account given by Pseudo-Apollodorus, Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring welled up.[26] In an alternative version of the myth from Vergil's Georgics, Poseidon instead gave the Athenians the first horse.[26] In both versions, Athena offered the Athenians the first domesticated olive tree.[26][27] Cecrops accepted this gift[26] and declared Athena the patron goddess of Athens.[26][27]

Different etymologies, now commonly rejected, were proposed during the 19th century. Christian Lobeck proposed as the root of the name the word ἄθος (áthos) or ἄνθος (ánthos) meaning "flower", to denote Athens as the "flowering city". Ludwig von Döderlein proposed the stem of the verb θάω, stem θη- (tháō, thē-, "to suck") to denote Athens as having fertile soil.[28]

In classical literature, the city was sometimes referred to as the City of the Violet Crown, first documented in Pindar's ἰοστέφανοι Ἀθᾶναι (iostéphanoi Athânai), or as τὸ κλεινὸν ἄστυ (tò kleinòn ásty, "the glorious city"). In medieval texts, variant names include Setines, Satine, and Astines, all derivations involving false splitting of prepositional phrases.[29] Today the caption η πρωτεύουσα (ī protévousa), "the capital", has become somewhat common.

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Афинхэр
Afrikaans: Athene
Alemannisch: Athen
አማርኛ: አቴና
Ænglisc: Athēnas
العربية: أثينا
aragonés: Atenas
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܬܢܘܣ
armãneashti: Athina
arpetan: Atèna
asturianu: Atenes
Avañe'ẽ: Atena
Aymar aru: Athina
azərbaycanca: Afina
تۆرکجه: آتن
bamanankan: Athens
Bân-lâm-gú: Athens
башҡортса: Афина
беларуская: Афіны
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Атэны
Bikol Central: Atenas
български: Атина
Boarisch: Athen
བོད་ཡིག: ཨ་ཐེན།
bosanski: Atina
brezhoneg: Aten
буряад: Афина
català: Atenes
Чӑвашла: Афинянсем
Cebuano: Atenas
čeština: Athény
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Atenas
Chi-Chewa: Athens
chiShona: Athens
corsu: Atene
Cymraeg: Athen
dansk: Athen
davvisámegiella: Athena
Deutsch: Athen
dolnoserbski: Atheny
eesti: Ateena
Ελληνικά: Αθήνα
эрзянь: Афины ош
español: Atenas
Esperanto: Ateno
estremeñu: Atenas
euskara: Atenas
فارسی: آتن
Fiji Hindi: Athens
føroyskt: Athen
français: Athènes
Frysk: Atene
Gaeilge: An Aithin
Gaelg: Yn Atheen
Gagauz: Afina
Gàidhlig: An Àithne
galego: Atenas
贛語: 雅典
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Athens
хальмг: Атен балһсн
한국어: 아테네
Hausa: Athens
Hawaiʻi: ʻAkenai
հայերեն: Աթենք
हिन्दी: एथेंस
hornjoserbsce: Athen
hrvatski: Atena (grad)
Ido: Athina
Ilokano: Atenas
Bahasa Indonesia: Athena (kota)
interlingua: Athenas
Interlingue: Athina
Ирон: Афинæтæ
isiZulu: I-Athene
íslenska: Aþena
italiano: Atene
עברית: אתונה
Basa Jawa: Aténa
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಅಥೆನ್ಸ್
Kapampangan: Athens
къарачай-малкъар: Афинле
ქართული: ათენი
қазақша: Афина
kernowek: Athína
Kiswahili: Athens
коми: Афинъяс
Kreyòl ayisyen: Atèn
kurdî: Atîna
Кыргызча: Афины
Ladino: Atena
лезги: Афинар
لۊری شومالی: آتن
Latina: Athenae
latviešu: Atēnas
Lëtzebuergesch: Athen
lietuvių: Atėnai
Ligure: Atene
Limburgs: Athene (stad)
lingála: Atenis
Livvinkarjala: Afiinat
la .lojban.: atenas
lumbaart: Atene
magyar: Athén
मैथिली: एथेन्स
македонски: Атина
Malagasy: Athens
മലയാളം: ഏതൻസ്‌
Malti: Ateni
Māori: Ātene
मराठी: अथेन्स
მარგალური: ათენი
مصرى: اتينا
Bahasa Melayu: Athens
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ngā-diēng
Mirandés: Atenas
мокшень: Афитт
монгол: Афин
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အေသင်မြို့
Dorerin Naoero: Atens (Grit)
Nederlands: Athene (stad)
नेपाली: एथेन्स
नेपाल भाषा: एथेन्स
日本語: アテネ
Napulitano: Atene
нохчийн: Афина
Nordfriisk: Athen
Norfuk / Pitkern: Athens
norsk: Athen
norsk nynorsk: Aten
occitan: Atenas
олык марий: Афин
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଏଥେନ୍ସ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Afina (shahar)
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਐਥਨਜ਼
پنجابی: ایتھنز
Papiamentu: Atenas
Patois: Atenz
Piemontèis: Atene
Plattdüütsch: Athen
polski: Ateny
Ποντιακά: Αθήνα
português: Atenas
Qaraqalpaqsha: Afina
qırımtatarca: Atina
română: Atena
rumantsch: Athen
Runa Simi: Athina
русиньскый: Атены
русский: Афины
саха тыла: Атина
Gagana Samoa: Atenai
sardu: Atene
Scots: Athens
Seeltersk: Athene (Stääd)
shqip: Athina
sicilianu: Ateni
Simple English: Athens
slovenčina: Atény
slovenščina: Atene
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Аѳинꙑ
ślůnski: Atyny
کوردی: ئەتینا
српски / srpski: Атина
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Atena
suomi: Ateena
svenska: Aten
Tagalog: Atenas
தமிழ்: ஏதென்ஸ்
Taqbaylit: Atena
tarandíne: Atene
татарча/tatarça: Афина
తెలుగు: ఏథెన్స్
Türkçe: Atina
Türkmençe: Atina
Twi: Atɛns
удмурт: Афины
українська: Афіни
اردو: ایتھنز
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئافېنا
vèneto: Atene
vepsän kel’: Afinad
Tiếng Việt: Athens
Volapük: Atina
Võro: Ateena
walon: Atene
文言: 雅典
West-Vlams: Athene
Winaray: Atenas
Wolof: Aten
吴语: 雅典
ייִדיש: אטען
Yorùbá: Áténì
粵語: 雅典
Zazaki: Atêna
Zeêuws: Athene
žemaitėška: Atienā
中文: 雅典
डोटेली: एथेन्स
ГӀалгӀай: Афины
Kabɩyɛ: Atɛnɩ
Lingua Franca Nova: Atina