Atahualpa

Atahualpa
Sapa Inca (13th)
Atahuallpa, Inca XIIII From Berlin Ethnologisches Museum, Staatliche Museen, Berlin, Germany.png
16th century portrait of Atahualpa by an unknown artist from the Cusco School Currently located in the Ethnological Museum of Berlin, Germany
ReignSapa Inca (1532–1533)
PredecessorHuáscar
SuccessorTúpac Huallpa
Bornc. 1502
Discussed: Cuzco, Quito[1][page needed] or Caranqui[2][3]
Died26 July 1533 (aged 31)[4]
Cajamarca
Burial29 August 1533
ConsortCoya Asarpay
QuechuaAtawallpa
DynastyHanan Cuzco
FatherHuayna Cápac – Inca Emperor
MotherDiscussed:
Tocto Ocllo Coca
Paccha Duchicela
Túpac Palla

Atahualpa (ə/), also Atahuallpa, Atabalipa (in Hispanicized spellings) or Atawallpa (Quechua) (c. 1502–26 July 1533) was the last Inca Emperor. After defeating his brother, Atahualpa became very briefly the last Sapa Inca (sovereign emperor) of the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu) before the Spanish conquest.

Before Huayna Capac died in Quito (possibly due to smallpox), he appointed Ninan Coyuchi and Yao as his successor. Ninan also died of the same disease, without his father's knowledge. The Cusquenian nobles named Huascar (another son of Huayna) as Sapa Inca, and he appointed his brother Atahualpa as governor of Quito. Huascar declared war on Atahualpa, for fear that he would try to carry out a coup d'état against him. Atahualpa became Inca emperor after he defeated and imprisoned Huáscar and massacred any pretenders to the throne at the close of the civil war. Later, while imprisoned by the Spaniards, Atahualpa gave orders to kill Huáscar in Jauja, thinking Huáscar would use the Spaniards as allies to regain his throne.[5]

During the Spanish conquest, the Spaniard Francisco Pizarro captured Atahualpa and used him to control the Inca Empire. Eventually, the Spanish executed Atahualpa, effectively ending the empire. A succession of emperors, who led the Inca resistance against the invading Spaniards, claimed the title of Sapa Inca as rulers of the Neo-Inca State, but the empire began to disintegrate after Atahualpa's death.

Pre-conquest

Throughout the Inca Empire's history, each Sapa Inca worked to expand the territory of the empire. When Pachacuti, the 9th Sapa Inca ruled, he expanded the Empire to northern Peru.[6] At this point, Pachacuti sent his son Tupac Inca Yupanqui to invade and conquer the territory of present-day Ecuador.[7] News of the expansion of the Inca reached the different tribes and nations of Ecuador. As a defense against the Inca, the Andean chiefdoms formed alliances with each other.

Around 1460, Tupac Inca Yupanqui, with an army of 200,000 warriors that were sent by his father, easily gained control of the Palta nation in southern Ecuador and northern Peru in a matter of months.[7] However, the Inca army met fierce resistance from the defending Cañari, which left the Incas so impressed that after they were defeated the Cañari were recruited into the Inca army. In northern Ecuador the Inca army met fiercer resistance from an alliance between the Quitus and the Cañari. After defeating them in the battle of Atuntaqui, Tupac Yupanqui sent settlers to what is now the city of Quito and left as governor Chalco Mayta, belonging to the Inca nobility.[8][page needed]

Around 1520, the tribes of Quitos, Caras and Puruhá rebelled against the Inca Huayna Cápac. He personally led his army, and defeated the rebels in the battle of Laguna de Yahuarcocha where there was such a massacre that the lake turned to blood. The alliance of the northern tribes collapsed and finally ended when Huayna Cápac married Paccha Duchicela, queen of the Quitos, making them recognize him as monarch, this marriage was the basis of the alliance that guaranteed the Inca power in the area.[9]

After Huayna Capac died in 1525, Atahualpa was appointed governor of Quito by his brother Huáscar.[10] Atahualpa defeated Huáscar's armies, sent because the Inca thought his brother could overthrow him, and in the process conquered and ruled the Inca Empire as Sapa Inca. His rule lasted only a few months before he was captured by the army of Francisco Pizarro, who sided with the Cuzco supporters of the executed Inca Huáscar. The Spanish conquerors executed Atahualpa in July 1533.[citation needed]

Other Languages
العربية: أتاوالبا
asturianu: Atahualpa
azərbaycanca: Ataualpa
تۆرکجه: آتاهوالپا
български: Атауалпа
brezhoneg: Atahualpa
català: Atahualpa
čeština: Atahualpa
dansk: Atahualpa
Deutsch: Atahualpa
eesti: Atahualpa
español: Atahualpa
Esperanto: Ataŭalpo
euskara: Atahualpa
فارسی: آتاهوالپا
français: Atahualpa
galego: Atahualpa
한국어: 아타우알파
հայերեն: Աթաուալպա
हिन्दी: अटाहुआल्पा
hrvatski: Atahualpa
Bahasa Indonesia: Atahualpa
italiano: Atahualpa
עברית: אטוואלפה
ქართული: ატაჰუალპა
latviešu: Atavalpa
lietuvių: Atahualpa
magyar: Atahualpa
македонски: Атауалпа
Malagasy: Atahualpa
Bahasa Melayu: Atahualpa
Nāhuatl: Atahualpa
Nederlands: Atahualpa
日本語: アタワルパ
norsk: Atahualpa
norsk nynorsk: Atahualpa
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਅਟਾਹੁਆਲਪਾ
polski: Atahualpa
português: Atahualpa
română: Atahualpa
Runa Simi: Atawallpa
русский: Атауальпа
Seeltersk: Atawallpa
Simple English: Atahualpa
slovenščina: Atahualpa
српски / srpski: Атавалпа
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Atahualpa
suomi: Atahualpa
svenska: Atahualpa
Türkçe: Atahualpa
українська: Атауальпа
Tiếng Việt: Atahualpa