Asyut

Asyut
أسيوط
Assyout city Egypt.jpg
Asyut is located in Egypt
Asyut
Asyut
Location of Asyut within Egypt
Coordinates: 27°11′N 31°10′E / 27°11′N 31°10′E / 27.183; 31.167
Country   Egypt
Governorate Asyut
Elevation 70 m (230 ft)
Population (2006)
 • Total 389,307 [1]
Time zone EET ( UTC+2)
Area code(s) (+20) 88

Asyut [spelling 1] ( Arabic: أسيوطAsyūṭ  pronounced  [ʔɑsˈjuːtˤ], Coptic: ⲥⲓⲟⲟⲩⲧ Siowt) is the capital of the modern Asyut Governorate in Egypt, which has one of the largest Coptic Catholic bishopric churches in the country; the ancient city of the same name, which is situated nearby. The modern city is located at 27°11′00″N 31°10′00″E / 27.18333°N 31.16667°E / 27.18333; 31.16667, while the ancient city is located at 27°10′00″N 31°08′00″E / 27°10′00″N 31°08′00″E / 27.16667; 31.13333.

History

Names and etymology

The name of the city is derived from early Egyptian Zawty (Z3JW.TJ) (late Egyptian, Səyáwt) adopted into the Coptic as Syowt ⲥⲓⲟⲟⲩⲧ, which means "Guardian" of the northern approach of Upper Egypt. [2] In Graeco-Roman Egypt, it was called Lycopolis or Lykopolis ( Greek: Λυκόπολις, "ἡ Λύκων πόλις"), [3] ('wolf city') Lycon, [4] or Lyco. [5]

Ancient Asyut

Statue of the chief royal scribe Yuny of Asyut and his wife Renenutet, 1290–1270 BCE early Dynasty 19.

Ancient Asyut was the capital of the Thirteenth Nome of Upper Egypt (Lycopolites Nome) around 3100 BC. It was located on the western bank of the Nile. The two most prominent gods of Ancient Egyptian Asyut were Anubis and Wepwawet, both funerary deities.

During the First Intermediate Period, the rulers of "Zawty" ( Khety I, Tefibi, and Khety II) were supporters of the Herakleopolitan kings, of whose domain the Nome formed the southern limits. The conflict between this Nome and the southern Nomes under the rule of the Eleventh dynasty ended with the victory of Thebes and the decline of Asyut's importance.

Skull of Khety from Asyut, 1950 BCE.

Lycopolis has no remarkable ruins, but in the excavated chambers of the adjacent rocks mummies of wolves have been found, confirming the origin of its name, as well as a tradition preserved by Diodorus Siculus, [6] to the effect that an Ethiopian army, invading Egypt, was repelled beyond the city of Elephantine by packs of wolves. Osiris was worshipped under the symbol of a wolf at Lycopolis. According to a myth, he had come "from the shades" as a wolf to aid Isis and Horus in their combat with Typhon. [7] Other Ancient Egyptian monuments discovered in Asyut include; the Asyut necropolis (west of the modern city), tombs which date to dynasties Nine, Ten and Twelve, and the Ramessid tombs of Siese and Amenhotep.

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Asyut
in hieroglyphs

In Graeco-Roman times, there was a distinct dialect of Coptic spoken in Asyut, known as " Lycopolitan", after the Greek name for the city. Lesser-used names for this dialect are "Sub-Akhmimic" and "Assiutic".

A large Byzantine Treasure was discovered near the city in the early twentieth century and is now dispersed amongst a number of museums in the West. The hoard is composed of some of the most elaborate jewellery to survive from late antiquity.

Asyut was the end of 40 Day Road that connected the city to Darfur through the Selima and Kharga Oases. The history of the road, known by local herders as Darb al-Arba'in, goes back over 700 years. It was used as a pathway for great caravans of up to 12,000 camels at its peak in the 14th century. [8]

Other Languages
አማርኛ: አስዩት
العربية: أسيوط
беларуская: Асьют
български: Асют
català: Assiut
dansk: Asyut
Deutsch: Asyut
eesti: Assiut
Ελληνικά: Ασιούτ
español: Asiut
euskara: Asiut
فارسی: اسیوط
français: Assiout
Gaeilge: Asyut
한국어: 아시우트
Bahasa Indonesia: Asyuth
italiano: Asyūṭ
עברית: אסיוט
ქართული: ასიუტი
Latina: Lycopolis
latviešu: Asjūta
lietuvių: Asjutas
magyar: Aszjút
مصرى: اسيوط
Bahasa Melayu: Asyut
Nederlands: Assioet (stad)
日本語: アスユート
norsk: Asyut
norsk nynorsk: Asyut
پنجابی: اسیوت
polski: Asjut
português: Assiut
română: Assiut
русский: Асьют
Scots: Asyut
Simple English: Asyut
slovenčina: Asjút (mesto)
slovenščina: Asjut
српски / srpski: Асјут
suomi: Asyut
svenska: Asyut
Taqbaylit: Asyuṭ
Türkçe: Asyut
українська: Асьют
اردو: اسیوط
Tiếng Việt: Asyut
Winaray: Asyut
中文: 艾斯尤特