Ashura

Ashura
Ashura 2016 mourning in Imam Hossein Square, Tehran 02.jpg
Ashura mourning in Imam Hossein Square, Tehran, 2016
Official nameعاشوراء ʻĀshūrā’  (in Arabic)
Also calledHosay, Tabuik, Tabot, The Day of Atonement
Observed byMuslims
TypeIslamic and national (In some countries such as Afghanistan, Republic of Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Iran, Lebanon, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Iraq, India, and Indonesia)
SignificanceMarks the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali; the day that Moses fasted as gratitude for the liberation of the Israelites according to Sunni Islam
ObservancesMourn and derive messages from Husayn's sacrifice (Shia Islam); fasting (Sunni Islam)
Date10 Muharram
2018 dateSeptember 20[1]
2019 dateSeptember 10[2]
2020 dateAugust 29[1]
2021 dateAugust 18[1]
FrequencyOnce every Islamic year

Yom Ashura or Ashura (Arabic: عاشوراء‎, romanizedʻĀshūrā’ [ʕaːʃuːˈraːʔ]) is the tenth day of Muharram, the first month in the Islamic calendar.[4] It marks the day that Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, was martyred in the Battle of Karbala.[5] Ashura is a major holiday and occasion for pilgrimage and fasting in Shia Islam,[6] as well as a recommended but non-obligatory day of fasting in Sunni Islam.[7][8][9] Ashura has origins in Yom Kippur from Judaism.[10]

Ashura marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram,[4] the annual commemoration of the death of Husayn and his family and supporters at the Battle of Karbala on 10 Muharram in the year 61 AH (in AHt: October 10, 680 CE).[11] Mourning for the incident began almost immediately after the battle. Popular elegies were written by poets to commemorate the Battle of Karbala during the Umayyad and Abbasid era, and the earliest public mourning rituals occurred in 963 CE during the Buyid dynasty.[12]In Afghanistan,[13] Iran,[14] Iraq,[15] Lebanon,[16] Bahrain[17] and Pakistan[18] Ashura has become a national holiday, and many ethnic and religious communities participate in it.[19][20]

For Sunni Muslims, Ashura also marks the day that Moses and the Israelites were saved from Pharaoh by God creating a path in the Sea[8][9][21][22] or Noah leaving the Ark.[23]

Etymology

The root of the word Ashura has the meaning of tenth in Semitic languages; hence the name of the remembrance, literally translated, means "the tenth day". According to the orientalist A. J. Wensinck, the name is derived from the Hebrew ʿāsōr, with the Aramaic determinative ending.[24] The day is indeed the tenth day of the month, although some Islamic scholars offer up different etymologies. In his book Ghuniyatut Talibin, Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani writes that Islamic scholars differ as to why this day is known as Ashura, some of them suggesting that it is the tenth most important day with which God has blessed Muslims.[25]

Other Languages
Acèh: 'Asyura
Afrikaans: Asjoera
العربية: عاشوراء
asturianu: Axura
azərbaycanca: Aşura
تۆرکجه: عاشورا
বাংলা: আশুরা
Banjar: Asyura
башҡортса: Ғәшүрә
беларуская: Ашура
български: Ашура
bosanski: Noć Ašure
català: Aixura
čeština: Ašúra
dansk: Ashura
Deutsch: Aschura
español: Ashura
euskara: Ashura
فارسی: عاشورا
français: Achoura
ગુજરાતી: મોહરમ
한국어: 아슈라
हिन्दी: यौम-ए-आशूरा
hrvatski: Ašura
Bahasa Indonesia: Hari Asyura
italiano: Ashura
עברית: עשוראא
қазақша: Ашура
Kiswahili: Ashura
kurdî: Aşûra
Кыргызча: Ашура
latviešu: Āšūra
Lingua Franca Nova: Axura
magyar: Ásúrá
മലയാളം: ആശൂറ
Bahasa Melayu: Hari Asyura
Nederlands: Asjoera
нохчийн: Ӏашураъ
norsk: Asjura
norsk nynorsk: Asjura
پښتو: عاشورا
polski: Aszura
português: Ashura
русский: Ашура
Simple English: Day of Ashura
سنڌي: عاشورو
Soomaaliga: Cashuura
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Ašura
Sunda: Asyura
suomi: Ašura
svenska: Aashura
татарча/tatarça: Гашура көне
Türkçe: Aşure Günü
українська: Ашура
اردو: عاشورا
walon: Aâchoura
中文: 阿舒拉节