1786 portrait by
(National Portrait Gallery, London)
7 February 1788 – 10 December 1792
|Died||31 August 1814 (aged 75)|
After much experience at sea, Phillip sailed with the
Phillip was a far-sighted governor who soon saw that New South Wales would need a civil administration and a system for emancipating the convicts. But his plan to bring skilled tradesmen on the voyage had been rejected, and he faced immense problems of labour, discipline and supply. His friendly attitude towards Aboriginal people was also sorely tested when they killed his gamekeeper, and he was not able to assert a clear policy about them.
The arrival of the
Phillip retired in 1805, but continued to correspond with his friends in New South Wales and to promote the colony's interests.
Captain Arthur Phillip was born on 11 October 1738, the youngest of two children to Jacob Phillip and Elizabeth Breach. His father Jacob was born in
There are no surviving records of Phillip's early childhood. His father Jacob died in 1739, after which the Phillip family may have fallen on hard times. On 22 June 1751 he was accepted into the
Phillip remained at the Greenwich School for two and a half years, considerably longer than the average student stay of twelve months. At the end of 1753 he was granted a seven-year indenture as an apprentice aboard Fortune, a 210-ton whaling vessel commanded by merchant mariner Wiliam Readhead. He left the Greenwich School on 1 December and spent the winter aboard the Fortune awaiting the commencement of the 1754 whaling season.