Artery

Artery
Artery.svg
Diagram of an artery.
Details
Identifiers
Latin Arteria ( plural: arteriae)
TA A12.0.00.003
A12.2.00.001
FMA 50720
Anatomical terminology

An artery (plural arteries) (from Greek ἀρτηρία (artēria), meaning "windpipe, artery") [1] is a blood vessel that takes blood from the heart to all parts of the body. Most arteries carry oxygenated blood; the two exceptions are the pulmonary and the umbilical arteries, which carry deoxygenated blood to the organs that oxygenate it. The effective arterial blood volume is that extracellular fluid which fills the arterial system.

The arteries are part of the circulatory system, which is responsible for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to all cells, as well as the removal of carbon dioxide and waste products, the maintenance of optimum blood pH, and the circulation of proteins and cells of the immune system. In developed countries, the two leading causes of death, myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke, may each directly result from an arterial system that has been slowly and progressively compromised by years of deterioration.

Structure

Microscopic anatomy of an artery.
Cross-section of a human artery

The anatomy of arteries can be separated into gross anatomy, at the macroscopic level, and microanatomy, which must be studied with the aid of a microscope. The arterial system of the human body is divided into systemic arteries, carrying blood from the heart to the whole body, and pulmonary arteries, carrying deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs.

The outermost layer of an artery (or vein) is known as the tunica externa, also known as tunica adventitia, and is composed of connective tissue made up of collagen fibers. Inside this layer is the tunica media, or media, which is made up of smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue (also called connective tissue proper). The innermost layer, which is in direct contact with the flow of blood, is the tunica intima, commonly called the intima. This layer is mainly made up of endothelial cells. The hollow internal cavity in which the blood flows is called the lumen.

Development

Arterial formation begins when endothelial cells begin to express arterial specific genes, such as ephrin B2. [2]

Other Languages
العربية: شريان
aragonés: Arteria
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܫܪܝܢܐ
asturianu: Arteria
azərbaycanca: Arteriyalar
বাংলা: ধমনী
Bân-lâm-gú: Tōng-me̍h
беларуская: Артэрыя
български: Артерия
bosanski: Arterija
català: Artèria
čeština: Tepna
Cymraeg: Rhydweli
dansk: Arterie
Deutsch: Arterie
eesti: Arter
Ελληνικά: Αρτηρία
español: Arteria
Esperanto: Arterio
euskara: Arteria
فارسی: سرخرگ
français: Artère
Gaeilge: Artaire
galego: Arteria
한국어: 동맥
Հայերեն: Զարկերակներ
हिन्दी: धमनी
hrvatski: Arterija
Ido: Arterio
Bahasa Indonesia: Pembuluh nadi
interlingua: Arteria
íslenska: Slagæð
italiano: Arteria
עברית: עורק
Basa Jawa: Pambuluh nadi
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಅಪಧಮನಿ
қазақша: Артерия
Kiswahili: Ateri
Kreyòl ayisyen: Atè
Kurdî: Xwînber
Кыргызча: Артериялар
Latina: Arteria
latviešu: Artērijas
lietuvių: Arterija
magyar: Artéria
македонски: Артерија
മലയാളം: ധമനികൾ
Bahasa Melayu: Arteri
မြန်မာဘာသာ: သွေးလွှတ်ကြော
Nederlands: Slagader
नेपाल भाषा: धमनी
日本語: 動脈
norsk: Arterie
norsk nynorsk: Pulsåre
occitan: Artèria
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Arteriyalar
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਧਮਣੀ
Piemontèis: Arteria
Plattdüütsch: Arterie
polski: Tętnica
português: Artéria
română: Arteră
Runa Simi: Tawna sirk'a
русский: Артерия
shqip: Arteria
Simple English: Artery
سنڌي: شريان
slovenčina: Tepna
slovenščina: Arterija
کوردی: خوێنبەر
српски / srpski: Артерија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Arterija
svenska: Artär
Tagalog: Arterya
தமிழ்: தமனி
తెలుగు: ధమని
Türkçe: Atardamar
українська: Артерія
اردو: شریان
Tiếng Việt: Động mạch
Võro: Elosuun
粵語: 動脈
中文: 动脉