Artaxerxes III

Artaxerxes III
(Artaxšaçā)
Emperor of Achaemenid Persia
Pharaoh of Egypt
King of Babylon
Artaxerxes III of Persia.jpg
Reign358–338 BC
CoronationPasargadae, February or March 358 BC[1]
Emperor of Persia
PredecessorArtaxerxes II
SuccessorArses
Pharaoh of Egypt
PredecessorNectanebo II
SuccessorArtaxerxes IV
Bornc. 425 BC
DiedBetween 26 August and 25 September 338 BC[1](aged 87)
BurialPersepolis
IssueArses
Parysatis II
Full name
Artaxerxes III Ochus
HouseAchaemenid
DynastyAchaemenid
FatherArtaxerxes II
MotherStateira
ReligionZoroastrianism

Artaxerxes III Ochus of Persia (z/; Old Persian: 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂 Artaxšaçā)[2] (c. 425 BC – 338 BC) was the eleventh emperor of the Achaemenid Empire, as well as the first Pharaoh of the 31st dynasty of Egypt. He was the son and successor of Artaxerxes II and was succeeded by his son, Arses of Persia (also known as Artaxerxes IV). His reign coincided with the reign of Philip II in Macedon and Nectanebo II in Egypt.

In his Historia Scholastica Petrus Comestor identified Artaxerxes III as Ahasuerus in the 10:1).[3]

Before ascending the throne Artaxerxes was a satrap and commander of his father's army. Artaxerxes came to power after one of his brothers was executed, another committed suicide, the last murdered and his father, Artaxerxes II died. Soon after becoming king, Artaxerxes murdered all of the royal family to secure his place as king. He started two major campaigns against Egypt. The first campaign failed, and was followed up by rebellions throughout the western part of his empire. In 343 BC, Artaxerxes defeated Nectanebo II, the Pharaoh of Egypt, driving him from Egypt, stopping a revolt in Phoenicia on the way.

In Artaxerxes' later years, Philip II of Macedon's power was increasing in Greece, where he tried to convince the Greeks to revolt against the Achaemenid Empire. His activities were opposed by Artaxerxes, and with his support, the city of Perinthus resisted a Macedonian siege.

There is evidence for a renewed building policy at Persepolis in his later life, where Artaxerxes erected a new palace and built his own tomb, and began long-term projects such as the Unfinished Gate.

Name

Artaxerxes III (Old Persian: 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂, Artaxšaçrā, "he whose empire is well-fitted" or "perfected", or Arta:"honoured" + Xerxes: "a king" ("the honoured king"), according to Herodotus "the great warrior"[4][5]) was the throne name adopted by Ochus when he succeeded his father in 358 BC. He is generally referred to as Ochus, but in modern Iran he is known as Ardeshir III (Persian: اردشیر سوم‎). In Babylonian inscriptions he is called "Umasu, who is called Artakshatsu". The same form of the name (probably pronounced Uvasu) occurs in the Syrian version of the Canon of Kings by Elias of Nusaybin.[4]

Other Languages
български: Артаксеркс III
bosanski: Artakserks III
čeština: Artaxerxés III.
français: Artaxerxès III
Bahasa Indonesia: Artaxsaca III
қазақша: Артаксеркс III
Nederlands: Artaxerxes III
português: Artaxerxes III
русский: Артаксеркс III
slovenčina: Artaxerxes III.
slovenščina: Artakserks III.
српски / srpski: Артаксеркс III
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Artakserks III
українська: Артаксеркс III
Tiếng Việt: Artaxerxes III
Yorùbá: Artaxerxes 3k