Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau
Abbesses.JPG
Alfons Mucha - F. Champenois Imprimeur-Éditeur.jpg
Louis comfort tiffany, lampada da tavolo pomb lily, 1900-10 ca..JPG
Louis Majorelle - Wall Cabinet - Walters 6587.jpg
Tassel House stairway.JPG
Paris metro station Abbesses, by Hector Guimard (1900); Lithograph by Alphonse Mucha (1897); Lamp by Louis Comfort Tiffany (1900–1910); Wall cabinet by Louis Majorelle; Interior of Hôtel Tassel by Victor Horta (1892–1893)
Years activec. 1890–1910
CountryWestern World

Art Nouveau (r/; French: [aʁ nuvo]) is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, known in different languages by different names: Jugendstil in German, Stile Liberty in Italian, Modernisme in Catalan, etc. In English it is also known as the Modern Style (not to be confused with Modernism and Modern architecture). The style was most popular between 1890 and 1910.[1] It was a reaction against the academic art, eclecticism and historicism of 19th century architecture and decoration. It was often inspired by natural forms such as the sinuous curves of plants and flowers.[2] Other characteristics of Art Nouveau were a sense of dynamism and movement, often given by asymmetry or "whiplash" curves, and the use of modern materials, particularly iron, glass, ceramics and later concrete, to create unusual forms and larger open spaces.[3]

One major objective of Art Nouveau was to break down the traditional distinction between fine arts (especially painting and sculpture) and applied arts. It was most widely used in interior design, graphic arts, furniture, glass art, textiles, ceramics, jewelry and metal work. The style responded to leading 19-century theoreticians, such as French architect Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (1814–1879) and British art critic John Ruskin (1819–1900). In Britain, it was influenced by William Morris and the Arts and Crafts movement. German architects and designers sought a spiritually uplifting Gesamtkunstwerk (“total work of art”) that would unify the architecture, furnishings, and art in the interior in a common style, to uplift and inspire the residents.[3]

The first Art Nouveau houses and interior decoration appeared in Brussels in the 1890s, in the architecture and interior design of houses designed by Paul Hankar, Henry Van de Velde, and especially Victor Horta, whose Hôtel Tassel was completed in 1893.[4][5][6] It moved quickly to Paris, where it was adapted by Hector Guimard, who saw Horta's work in Brussels and applied the style for the entrances of the new Paris Metro. It reached its peak at the 1900 Paris International Exposition, which introduced the Art Nouveau work of artists such as Louis Tiffany. It appeared in graphic arts in the posters of Alphonse Mucha, and the glassware of René Lalique and Émile Gallé.

From Belgium and France, it spread to the rest of Europe, taking on different names and characteristics in each country (see Naming section below). It often appeared not only in capitals, but also in rapidly growing cities that wanted to establish artistic identities (Turin and Palermo in Italy; Glasgow in Scotland; Munich and Darmstadt in Germany), as well as in centres of independence movements (Helsinki in Finland, then part of the Russian Empire; Barcelona in Catalonia, Spain).

By 1910, Art Nouveau's influence had faded. It was replaced as the dominant European architectural and decorative style first by Art Deco and then by Modernism.[7][8]

Naming

The term art nouveau was first used in the 1880s in the Belgian journal L'Art Moderne to describe the work of Les Vingt, twenty painters and sculptors seeking reform through art. The name was popularized by the Maison de l'Art Nouveau ("House of the New Art"), an art gallery opened in Paris in 1895 by the Franco-German art dealer Siegfried Bing. In Britain, the French term Art Nouveau was commonly used, while in France, it was often called by the term Style moderne (akin to the British term Modern Style), or Style 1900.[9] In France, it was also sometimes called Style Jules Verne (after the novelist Jules Verne), Style Métro (after Hector Guimard's iron and glass subway entrances), Art Belle Époque, or Art fin de siècle.[10]

Art Nouveau is related to, but not identical with, styles that emerged in many countries in Europe at about the same time. Their local names were often used in their respective countries to describe the whole movement.

  • In Belgium, it was sometimes termed Style coup de fouet ("Whiplash style"), Paling Stijl ("Eel style"), or Style nouille ("Noodle style") by its detractors.[10]
  • In Britain, besides Art Nouveau, it was known as the Modern Style, or, because of works of Glasgow School, as the Glasgow style. The term Modern is also used in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine, and Modernas in Lithuania
  • In Germany and Scandinavia, it was called Reformstil ("Reform style"), or Jugendstil ("Youth style"), after the popular German art magazine of that name,[10] as well as Wellenstil ("Wave style"), or Lilienstil ("Lily style").[9] It is now called Jugend in Finland and Sweden, Juugend in Estonia, and Jūgendstils in Latvia.
  • In Denmark, it is known as Skønvirke ("Work of beauty").
  • In Austria and the neighbouring countries then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Wiener Jugendstil, or Secessionsstil ("Secession style"), after the artists of the Vienna Secession (Hungarian: szecesszió, Czech: secese, Slovak: secesia, Polish: secesja).
  • In Italy, because of the popularity of designs from London's Liberty & Co department store, it was often called Stile Liberty ("Liberty style"), Stile floreale ("Floral style"), or Arte nuova ("New Art").[10]
  • In the United States, due to its association with Louis Comfort Tiffany, it was sometimes called the "Tiffany style".[3][8][9][11]
  • In the Netherlands, it was called Nieuwe Kunst ("New Art"), or Nieuwe Stijl ("New style").[8][9]
  • In Portugal, Arte nova.
  • In Spain, Modernismo, Modernisme (in Catalan) and Arte joven ("Young Art").
  • In Switzerland, Style Sapin ("Fir tree style").[9]
  • In Finland, Kalevala Style.
  • In Russia, Модерн ("Modern") or, for painting, Мир Искусства (Mir Iskusstva, "World of Art").
  • In Japan, Shiro-Uma.[12]
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Jugendstil
Alemannisch: Jugendstil
العربية: فن جديد
azərbaycanca: Modern
Bân-lâm-gú: Art nouveau
беларуская: Мадэрн
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Мадэрн
български: Ар нуво
Boarisch: Jugendstil
bosanski: Art Nouveau
brezhoneg: Arz Nevez
català: Modernisme
Чӑвашла: Модерн
čeština: Secese
dansk: Jugendstil
Deutsch: Jugendstil
eesti: Juugend
Ελληνικά: Αρ Νουβό
Esperanto: Secesio (stilo)
euskara: Art Nouveau
فارسی: هنر نو
français: Art nouveau
Frysk: Jugendstil
Gaeilge: Art Nouveau
galego: Art Nouveau
한국어: 아르 누보
հայերեն: Մոդեռն
hrvatski: Secesija
Bahasa Indonesia: Art Nouveau
interlingua: Art Nouveau
italiano: Art Nouveau
עברית: אר נובו
ქართული: არტ-ნუვო
қазақша: Модерн
kurdî: Modernîzm
Кыргызча: Модерн
latviešu: Jūgendstils
Lëtzebuergesch: Jugendstil
lietuvių: Modernas
Limburgs: Art nouveau
Lingua Franca Nova: Arte nova
magyar: Szecesszió
македонски: Југендстил
മലയാളം: ആർട് നൂവോ
Nederlands: Jugendstil
Napulitano: Liberty
norsk: Jugendstil
norsk nynorsk: Art nouveau
Nouormand: Art Nouvé
پنجابی: آرٹ نوو
Picard: Art nouvieu
português: Art nouveau
română: Art Nouveau
русский: Модерн
sardu: Modernismu
Seeltersk: Juugendstil
Simple English: Art Nouveau
slovenčina: Secesia
slovenščina: Art nouveau
српски / srpski: Сецесија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Art nouveau
suomi: Jugend
svenska: Jugend
Tagalog: Art Nouveau
Türkçe: Art Nouveau
українська: Модерн (мистецтво)
Tiếng Việt: Art Nouveau