Art Nouveau (r/; French: [aʁ nuvo]) is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts. It was most popular between 1890 and 1910. A reaction to the academic art of the 19th century, it was inspired by natural forms and structures, particularly the curved lines of plants and flowers.
Art Nouveau is a total art style: It embraces a wide range of fine and decorative arts, including architecture, painting, graphic art, interior design, jewelry, furniture, textiles, ceramics, glass art, and metal work.
By 1910, Art Nouveau's influence had faded. It was replaced as the dominant European architectural and decorative style first by Art Deco and then by Modernism.
Art Nouveau took its name from the Maison de l'Art Nouveau (House of the New Art), an art gallery opened in 1895 by the Franco-German art dealerSiegfried Bing. In France, Art Nouveau was also sometimes called by the British term "Modern Style", due to its roots in the Arts and Crafts movement, Style moderne, or Style 1900. It was also sometimes called Style Jules Verne, Le Style Métro (after Hector Guimard's iron and glass subway entrances), Art Belle Époque, and Art fin de siècle.
English uses the French name Art Nouveau (new art). The style is related to, but not identical with, styles that emerged in many countries in Europe at about the same time. Their local names were also used to characterize the whole movement in the respective countries:
In Belgium, where the architectural movement began, along with Art Nouveau it was sometimes termed Style nouille (noodle style) or Style coup de fouet (whiplash style),
In Germany, Scandinavia, a related style was called Jugendstil, after the popular German art magazine of that name.. It is now called Jugend in finland, Juugend in Estonia, Jūgendstils in Latvia. In Denmark it is also known as Skønvirke, in Germany - also as Reformstil,
In Italy, because of the popularity of designs from London's Liberty & Co department store (mostly designed by Archibald Knox), it was often called Stile Liberty ("Liberty style"), Stile floreale, or Arte nuova (New Art),
In the Netherlands it was called Nieuwe Kunst (new art), in Portugal - Arte nova (both meaning new art).
In Spain, the related style was known as Modernismo, Modernisme (in Catalan) and Arte joven ("young art").
Some names refer specifically to the organic forms that were popular with the Art Nouveau artists: Stile Floreal ("floral style") in France; Paling Stijl ("eel style") in Belgium , Style Sapin (fir-tree style) in Switzerland and Wellenstil ("wave style") and Lilienstil ("lily style") in Germany.