Arnica

Arnica
Arnica montana - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-015.jpg
Arnica montana [1]
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Tribe: Heliantheae
Subtribe: Madiinae
Genus: Arnica
L. 1753 not Boehm. 1760
Synonyms
  • Mallotopus Franch. & Sav.
  • Whitneya A.Gray
  • Gerbera Boehm.
  • Aliseta Raf.
  • Epiclinastrum Bojer ex DC.
  • Aphyllocaulon Lag.

Arnica ə/ is a genus of perennial, herbaceous plants in the sunflower family ( Asteraceae). The genus name Arnica may be derived from the Greek arni, "lamb", in reference to the plants' soft, hairy leaves. Arnica is also known by the names Mountain Tobacco and, confusingly, Leopard's bane and Wolfsbane—two names that it shares with the entirely unrelated genus Aconitum.

This Circumboreal and montane (subalpine) genus occurs mostly in the temperate regions of western North America, with a few species native to the Arctic regions of northern Eurasia and North America. [2]

Several species, such as Arnica montana and A.chamissonis, contain helenalin, a sesquiterpene lactone that is a major ingredient in anti-inflammatory preparations (used mostly for bruises).

Arnica species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Bucculatrix arnicella.

Arnica was previously classified in the tribe Senecioneae because it has a flower or pappus of fine bristles.

Characteristics

Frigid arnica near a training radar site in the Alaskan Interior.

Arnica plants have a deep-rooted, erect stem that is usually unbranched. Their downy opposite leaves are borne towards the apex of the stem. The ovoid, leathery basal leaves are arranged in a rosette. [3]

They show large yellow or orange flowers, 6–8 cm (2–3 in) wide with 10–15 cm (4–6 in) long ray florets and numerous disc florets. The phyllaries (a bract under the flowerhead) has long spreading hairs. Each phyllary is associated with a ray floret. Species of Arnica, with an involucre (a circle of bracts arranged surrounding the flower head) arranged in two rows, have only their outer phyllaries associated with ray florets. The flowers have a slight aromatic smell. If taken in the wrong dose it can be very dangerous. [3]

The seedlike fruit has a pappus of plumose, white or pale tan bristles. The entire plant has a strong and distinct pine-sage odor when the leaves of mature plants are rubbed or bruised. [3]

Other Languages
asturianu: Arnica
azərbaycanca: Öküzotu
беларуская: Купальнік
català: Arnica
Cebuano: Arnica
čeština: Prha
eesti: Arnika
español: Arnica
Esperanto: Arniko
français: Arnica
galego: Arnica
Հայերեն: Արնիկա
hrvatski: Moravka
Ido: Arniko
italiano: Arnica
қазақша: Арника
lietuvių: Arnika
Nederlands: Arnica
norsk nynorsk: Solblomslekta
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Arnika
polski: Arnika
português: Arnica
română: Arnica
русский: Арника
shqip: Arnica
suomi: Arnikit
українська: Арніка
Tiếng Việt: Arnica
Winaray: Arnica