Arkansas

Arkansas
State of Arkansas
Nickname(s): 
The Natural State (current)
The Bear State (former)
Motto(s): 
Regnat populus (Latin: The People Rule)
Anthem: "Arkansas", "Arkansas (You Run Deep in Me)", "Oh, Arkansas", and "The Arkansas Traveler"
Map of the United States with Arkansas highlighted
Map of the United States with Arkansas highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodArkansas Territory
Admitted to the UnionJune 15, 1836 (25th)
Capital
(and largest city)
Little Rock
Largest metroCentral Arkansas
Government
 • GovernorAsa Hutchinson (R)
 • Lieutenant governorTim Griffin (R)
LegislatureArkansas General Assembly
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
U.S. senatorsJohn Boozman (R)
Tom Cotton (R)
U.S. House delegation4 Republicans (list)
Area
 • Total53,180 sq mi (137,733 km2)
 • Land52,068 sq mi (85,582 km2)
 • Water1,110 sq mi (2,876 km2)  2.09%
Area rank29th
Dimensions
 • Length240 mi (386 km)
 • Width270 mi (435 km)
Elevation
650 ft (200 m)
Highest elevation2,753 ft (839 m)
Lowest elevation55 ft (17 m)
Population
 • Total3,013,825 (2,018)
 • Rank33rd
 • Density56.4/sq mi (21.8/km2)
 • Density rank34th
 • Median household income
$45,869
 • Income rank
49th
Demonym(s)Arkansan
Arkansawyer
Arkanite
[5]
Language
 • Official languageEnglish
Time zoneUTC-06:00 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-05:00 (CDT)
USPS abbreviation
AR
ISO 3166 codeUS-AR
www.arkansas.gov
Arkansas state symbols
Flag of Arkansas.svg
Seal of Arkansas.svg
Living insignia
BirdMockingbird
ButterflyDiana fritillary
FlowerApple blossom
InsectWestern honeybee
MammalWhite-tailed deer
TreePine tree
Inanimate insignia
BeverageMilk
DanceSquare dance
FoodPecan
GemstoneDiamond
MineralQuartz
RockBauxite
SoilStuttgart
OtherSouth Arkansas vine ripe pink tomato (state fruit and vegetable)
State route marker
Arkansas state route marker
State quarter
Arkansas quarter dollar coin
Released in 2003
Lists of United States state symbols

Arkansas (ɔː/ AR-kən-saw)[c] is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018.[6][7] Its name is from the Osage language, of Siouan derivation; it denoted their related kin, the Quapaw people.[8] The state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U.S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta.

Arkansas is the 29th largest by area and the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States. The capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business, culture, and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population, education, and economic center. The largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.

The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836.[9] Much of the Delta had been developed for cotton plantations, and the state landowners largely depended on enslaved African Americans as workers. In 1861, Arkansas seceded from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War.

On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its reliance on the large-scale plantation economy. Cotton continued as the leading commodity crop, although the cotton market declined. Because farmers and businessmen did not diversify and there was little industrial investment, the state fell behind in terms of its economy and opportunities for residents.

White rural interests dominated the state's politics by disenfranchisement of African Americans and by refusal to reapportion the legislature. It was not until after the civil rights movement and passage of federal legislation that more African Americans were able to vote. The Supreme Court overturned rural domination in the South and other states that had refused to reapportion their state legislatures, or retained rules based on geographic districts. In one man, one vote, it ruled that states had to organize both houses of their legislatures by districts that held approximately equal populations, and that these had to be redefined as necessary after each decade's census.

Following World War II, Arkansas began to diversity its economy. In the 21st century, its economy is based on service industries, aircraft, poultry, steel, and tourism, along with important commodity crops of cotton, soybeans and rice.

The culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, theaters, novels, television shows, restaurants, and athletic venues across the state. Notable people from the state include politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; former president Bill Clinton, who also served as the 40th and 42nd governor of Arkansas; general Wesley Clark, former NATO Supreme Allied Commander; Walmart founder and magnate Sam Walton;[10] singer-songwriters Johnny Cash, Charlie Rich, Jimmy Driftwood, and Glen Campbell; actor-filmmaker, Billy Bob Thornton; poet C. D. Wright; and physicist William L. McMillan, who was a pioneer in superconductor research.

Etymology and pronunciation


Pronunciation of Arkansas

The name Arkansas was initially applied to the Arkansas River. It derives from a French term, Arcansas, their plural term for their transliteration of akansa, an Algonquian term for the Quapaw people.[11] These were a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century. akansa is likely also the root term for Kansas.[11]

The name has been pronounced and spelled in a variety of fashions.[c] In 1881, the state legislature defined the official pronunciation of Arkansas as having the final "s" be silent (as it would be in French). A dispute had arisen between the state's two senators over the pronunciation issue. One favored pronunciation as ɔː/ AR-kən-saw while the other favored s/ KAN-zəs.[c]

In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, which has been followed increasingly by the state government.[13]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Arkansas
አማርኛ: አርካንሳው
Ænglisc: Arkansas
العربية: أركنساس
aragonés: Arkansas
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܪܟܢܣܐܣ
arpetan: Arkansas
asturianu: Arkansas
Avañe'ẽ: Arkansas
Aymar aru: Arkansas suyu
azərbaycanca: Arkanzas
Bân-lâm-gú: Arkansas
башҡортса: Арканзас
беларуская: Арканзас
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Арканзас
भोजपुरी: आर्कन्सा
Bikol Central: Arkansas
Bislama: Arkansas
български: Арканзас
Boarisch: Arkansas
bosanski: Arkansas
brezhoneg: Arkansas
буряад: Арканзас
català: Arkansas
Чӑвашла: Арканзас
Cebuano: Arkansas
čeština: Arkansas
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Arkansas
corsu: Arkansas
Cymraeg: Arkansas
dansk: Arkansas
davvisámegiella: Arkansas
Deutsch: Arkansas
eesti: Arkansas
Ελληνικά: Άρκανσο
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Arkànsas
español: Arkansas
Esperanto: Arkansaso
euskara: Arkansas
فارسی: آرکانزاس
Fiji Hindi: Arkansas
føroyskt: Arkansas
français: Arkansas
Frysk: Arkansas
Gaeilge: Arkansas
Gaelg: Arkansas
Gagauz: Arkansas
Gàidhlig: Arkansas
galego: Arcansas
贛語: 阿肯色州
ગુજરાતી: અરકાનસાસ
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌰𐍂𐌺𐌰𐌽𐍃𐌰𐍅
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Arkansas
хальмг: Арканзас
한국어: 아칸소주
Hawaiʻi: ‘Akanaka
हिन्दी: आर्कन्सा
hornjoserbsce: Arkansas
hrvatski: Arkansas
Igbo: Arkinsọ
Ilokano: Arkansas
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: আরকান্‌সাস
Bahasa Indonesia: Arkansas
interlingua: Arkansas
Interlingue: Arkansas
Iñupiak: Aakansaa
íslenska: Arkansas
italiano: Arkansas
עברית: ארקנסו
Jawa: Arkansas
Kabɩyɛ: Arakanzaa
Kapampangan: Arkansas
ქართული: არკანზასი
kernowek: Arkansas
Kiswahili: Arkansas
Kreyòl ayisyen: Akennsas (eta)
kurdî: Arkansas
кырык мары: Арканзас
Ladino: Arkansas
لۊری شومالی: آرکانزاس
Latina: Arcansia
latviešu: Ārkanzasa
Lëtzebuergesch: Arkansas
lietuvių: Arkanzasas
Ligure: Arkansas
Limburgs: Arkansas
Lingua Franca Nova: Arkansas
lumbaart: Arkansas
magyar: Arkansas
मैथिली: आर्कान्स
македонски: Арканзас
Malagasy: Arkansas
മലയാളം: അർക്കൻസാസ്
Māori: Arkansas
მარგალური: არკანზასი
مصرى: اركنساس
مازِرونی: آرکانزاس
Bahasa Melayu: Arkansas
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Arkansas
монгол: Арканзас
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အာကင်ဆောပြည်နယ်
Nāhuatl: Arkansas
Dorerin Naoero: Arkansas
Nederlands: Arkansas (staat)
Nedersaksies: Arkansas
नेपाली: आर्कान्स
नेपाल भाषा: आर्कान्सः
нохчийн: Арканзас
Nordfriisk: Arkansas
norsk: Arkansas
norsk nynorsk: Arkansas
occitan: Arkansas
олык марий: Арканзас
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Arkanzas
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਆਰਕੰਸਾ
پنجابی: آرکانساس
Papiamentu: Arkansas
Piemontèis: Arkansas
Plattdüütsch: Arkansas
polski: Arkansas
português: Arkansas
română: Arkansas
rumantsch: Arkansas
Runa Simi: Arkansas suyu
русский: Арканзас
саха тыла: Арканзас
संस्कृतम्: अर्कान्स
sardu: Arkansas
Scots: Arkansas
Seeltersk: Arkansas
shqip: Arkansas
sicilianu: Arkansas
Simple English: Arkansas
سنڌي: ارڪنساس
slovenčina: Arkansas
slovenščina: Arkansas
ślůnski: Arkansas
Soomaaliga: Arkansas
کوردی: ئارکنساس
српски / srpski: Арканзас
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Arkansas
suomi: Arkansas
svenska: Arkansas
Tagalog: Arkansas
தமிழ்: ஆர்கன்சா
татарча/tatarça: Арканзас
తెలుగు: ఆర్కాన్సా
тоҷикӣ: Арканзас
Türkçe: Arkansas
українська: Арканзас
اردو: آرکنساس
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Arkanzas Shtati
Tiếng Việt: Arkansas
Volapük: Arkansas
文言: 阿肯色州
Winaray: Arkansas
吴语: 阿肯色州
ייִדיש: ארקענסא
Yorùbá: Arkansas
粵語: 阿肯色州
Zazaki: Arkansas
Zeêuws: Arkansas
žemaitėška: Arkanzasos
中文: 阿肯色州