Argentine Republic[A]

República Argentina  (Spanish)
Sol de Mayo[2]
(Sun of May)

Sol de Mayo
Argentina shown in dark green.
Argentina shown in dark green.
and largest city
Buenos Aires
34°36′S 58°23′W / 34°36′S 58°23′W / -34.600; -58.383
Official languagesNone
Recognised regional languages
National languageSpanish[a]
Ethnic groups
Demonym(s)Argentine, Argentinian, Argentinean
GovernmentFederal presidential constitutional republic
• President
Alberto Fernández
Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
Santiago Cafiero
Sergio Massa
Carlos Rosenkrantz
LegislatureFederal Congress
Chamber of Deputies
from Spain
25 May 1810
• Declared
9 July 1816
1 May 1853
• Total
2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi)[B] (8th)
• Water (%)
• 2019 estimate
• 2010 census
40,117,096[13] (32nd)
• Density
14.4/km2 (37.3/sq mi)[13] (214th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$903.542 billion[14] (25th)
• Per capita
$20,055[14] (56th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$445.469 billion[14] (30th)
• Per capita
$9,887[14] (53rd)
Gini (2017)Positive decrease 41.2[15]
HDI (2018)Decrease 0.830[16]
very high · 48th
CurrencyPeso ($) (ARS)
Time zoneUTC−3 (ART)
Date (CE)
Driving sideright[b]
Calling code+54
ISO 3166 codeAR
  1. ^ Though not declared official de jure, the Spanish language is the only one used in the wording of laws, decrees, resolutions, official documents and public acts.
  2. ^ 10 June 1945, but trains are still driven on left.

Argentina (Spanish: [aɾxenˈtina]), officially the Argentine Republic[A] (Spanish: República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi),[B] Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the second largest in South America after Brazil, and the largest Spanish-speaking nation. The sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces (Spanish: provincias, singular provincia) and one autonomous city (ciudad autónoma), Buenos Aires, which is the federal capital of the nation (Spanish: Capital Federal) as decided by Congress.[17] The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas), and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.

The earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period.[18] The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times. The country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.[19] Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata,[20] a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence (1810–1818) was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city. The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration, mainly Italians and Spaniards, radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook; 62.5% of the population has full or partial Italian ancestry,[11][21] and the Argentine culture has significant connections to the Italian culture.[22] The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century.[23][24][25]

Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment,[26] though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades.[23] Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency. She was overthrown in 1976 by a U.S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics, activists, and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were later convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment.

Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, and retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs.[27][28][29] Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, and membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies. It is also a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Mercosur, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America.[16]

Name and etymology

The description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.[30]

In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina (masculine argentino) means in Italian "(made) of silver, silver coloured", probably borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine "(made) of silver" > "silver coloured" already mentioned in the 12th century.[31] The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in (same construction as Old French acerin "(made) of steel", from acier "steel" + -in or sapin "(made) of fir wood", from OF sap "fir" + -in). The Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is often used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina.

The name Argentina was probably first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are respectively plata and prata and "(made) of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.[32]

The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina,[C] a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region.[33] Although "Argentina" was already in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, and "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence.

The 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents.[34] The name "Argentine Confederation" was also commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853.[35] In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic",[36] and that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as legally valid.[37][D]

In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina[38] and perhaps resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name 'Argentine Republic'. 'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, and now the country is simply referred to as "Argentina".

In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine ("La [República] Argentina"), taking the feminine article "La" as the initial syllable of "Argentina" is unstressed.[39]

Other Languages
Acèh: Argentina
Адыгэбзэ: Архентинэ
адыгабзэ: Аргентинэ
Afrikaans: Argentinië
Alemannisch: Argentinien
አማርኛ: አርጀንቲና
Ænglisc: Argentina
العربية: الأرجنتين
aragonés: Archentina
armãneashti: Arghentina
arpetan: Argentina
অসমীয়া: আৰ্জেণ্টিনা
asturianu: Arxentina
Avañe'ẽ: Argentína
Aymar aru: Arxintina
azərbaycanca: Argentina
تۆرکجه: آرژانتین
bamanankan: Argentina
Bân-lâm-gú: Argentina
башҡортса: Аргентина
беларуская: Аргенціна
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Аргентына
भोजपुरी: अर्जेंटाइना
Bikol Central: Argentina
Bislama: Argentina
български: Аржентина
Boarisch: Argentinien
bosanski: Argentina
brezhoneg: Arc'hantina
буряад: Аргентинэ
català: Argentina
Чӑвашла: Аргентина
Cebuano: Argentina
čeština: Argentina
Chamoru: Argentina
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Argentina
chiShona: Argentina
chiTumbuka: Argentina
corsu: Argentina
Cymraeg: Yr Ariannin
dansk: Argentina
davvisámegiella: Argentiinná
Deitsch: Artschenti
Deutsch: Argentinien
ދިވެހިބަސް: އާޖެންޓީނާ
dolnoserbski: Argentinska
eesti: Argentina
Ελληνικά: Αργεντινή
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Argintìna
эрзянь: Аргентина
español: Argentina
Esperanto: Argentino
estremeñu: Argentina
euskara: Argentina
eʋegbe: Argentina
فارسی: آرژانتین
Fiji Hindi: Argentina
føroyskt: Argentina
français: Argentine
Frysk: Argentynje
furlan: Argjentine
Gaeilge: An Airgintín
Gagauz: Argentina
Gàidhlig: An Argantain
galego: Arxentina
ГӀалгӀай: Аргентина
贛語: 阿根廷
Gĩkũyũ: Argentina
ગુજરાતી: આર્જેન્ટીના
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: आर्जेन्टिना
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Argentina
한국어: 아르헨티나
Hausa: Argentina
Hawaiʻi: ‘Alekina
հայերեն: Արգենտինա
Արեւմտահայերէն: Արժանթին
hornjoserbsce: Argentinska
hrvatski: Argentina
Igbo: Argentina
Ilokano: Arhentina
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: আর্জেন্টিনা
Bahasa Indonesia: Argentina
interlingua: Argentina
Interlingue: Argentina
isiZulu: I-Arjentina
íslenska: Argentína
italiano: Argentina
עברית: ארגנטינה
Kabɩyɛ: Arzantiini
kalaallisut: Argentina
Kapampangan: Argentina
къарачай-малкъар: Аргентина
ქართული: არგენტინა
kaszëbsczi: Argentina
қазақша: Аргентина
kernowek: Arghantina
Kinyarwanda: Arijantine
Kirundi: Argentine
Kiswahili: Argentina
Kongo: Arhentina
Kreyòl ayisyen: Ajantin
kurdî: Arjentîn
Кыргызча: Аргентина
кырык мары: Аргентина
Ladino: Arjentina
لۊری شومالی: آرژانتین
latgaļu: Argeņtina
Latina: Argentina
latviešu: Argentīna
Lëtzebuergesch: Argentinien
лезги: Аргентина
lietuvių: Argentina
Ligure: Argentinn-a
Limburgs: Argentinië
lingála: Argentina
Lingua Franca Nova: Arjentina
Livvinkarjala: Argentiinu
la .lojban.: getygu'e
Luganda: Argentina
lumbaart: Argentina
magyar: Argentína
македонски: Аргентина
Malagasy: Arjentina
മലയാളം: അർജന്റീന
Malti: Arġentina
Māori: Āketina
მარგალური: არგენტინა
مصرى: ارجنتين
مازِرونی: آرژانتین
Bahasa Melayu: Argentina
Minangkabau: Argentina
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Argentina
Mirandés: Argentina
монгол: Аргентин
Nāhuatl: Argentina
Dorerin Naoero: Ardjentina
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Argentina
Nederlands: Argentinië
Nedersaksies: Argentinië
नेपाल भाषा: अर्जेन्तिना
Napulitano: Argentina
нохчийн: Аргентина
Nordfriisk: Argentiinien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Aajentiina
norsk: Argentina
norsk nynorsk: Argentina
Nouormand: Argentinne
Novial: Argentina
occitan: Argentina
олык марий: Аргентина
Oromoo: Arjentiinaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Argentina
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਅਰਜਨਟੀਨਾ
Pälzisch: Argentinien
Pangasinan: Argentina
پنجابی: ارجنٹاین
Papiamentu: Argentina
Patois: Aajentiina
Piemontèis: Argentin-a
Tok Pisin: Ajentina
Plattdüütsch: Argentinien
polski: Argentyna
português: Argentina
Qaraqalpaqsha: Argentina
qırımtatarca: Argentina
reo tahiti: ’Atetina
română: Argentina
romani čhib: Arxentina
rumantsch: Argentinia
Runa Simi: Arhintina
русиньскый: Арґентина
русский: Аргентина
саха тыла: Аргентина
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱟᱨᱡᱮᱱᱴᱤᱱᱟ
Gagana Samoa: Atenitina
संस्कृतम्: अर्जण्टिना
sardu: Argentina
Scots: Argentinae
Seeltersk: Argentinien
Sesotho sa Leboa: Argentina
shqip: Argjentina
sicilianu: Argintina
Simple English: Argentina
slovenčina: Argentína
slovenščina: Argentina
ślůnski: Argyntyna
Soomaaliga: Arjantiina
کوردی: ئەرژەنتین
Sranantongo: Argentinikondre
српски / srpski: Аргентина
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Argentina
Sunda: Argéntina
suomi: Argentiina
svenska: Argentina
Tagalog: Arhentina
Taqbaylit: Tarjentint
tarandíne: Argendine
татарча/tatarça: Аргентина
తెలుగు: అర్జెంటీనా
tetun: Arjentina
ትግርኛ: አርጀንቲና
тоҷикӣ: Аргентина
Türkçe: Arjantin
Türkmençe: Argentina
тыва дыл: Аргентина
удмурт: Аргентина
українська: Аргентина
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئارگېنتىنا
Vahcuengh: Argentina
vèneto: Argentina
vepsän kel’: Argentin
Tiếng Việt: Argentina
Volapük: Largäntän
Võro: Argentina
文言: 阿根廷
West-Vlams: Argentinië
Winaray: Argentina
Wolof: Arsantin
吴语: 阿根廷
Xitsonga: Arjentina
ייִדיש: ארגענטינע
Yorùbá: Argẹntínà
粵語: 阿根廷
Zazaki: Arcantin
Zeêuws: Arhentinië
žemaitėška: Argentėna
中文: 阿根廷
kriyòl gwiyannen: Larjantin
Sakizaya: Argentina