Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region
image of the Arctic
Arctic countries based on countries or country's territories bordering the
The nations which comprise the Arctic region.
The Arctic (/ or /)
[Note 1] is a
polar region located at the northernmost part of
Earth. The Arctic consists of the
Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of
Northern Canada (
Kingdom of Denmark),
Sweden. Land within the Arctic region has seasonally varying snow and
ice cover, with predominantly treeless
permafrost (permanently frozen underground ice)-containing
tundra. Arctic seas contain seasonal
sea ice in many places.
The Arctic region is a unique area among Earth's ecosystems. For example, the cultures in the region and the Arctic
indigenous peoples have adapted to its cold and extreme conditions. In recent years,
Arctic sea ice decline has been caused by
 Life in the Arctic includes organisms living in the ice,
phytoplankton, fish and
marine mammals, birds, land animals, plants and human societies.
 Arctic land is bordered by the