Archery was laid out in 1913. The community was named by William D. Johnson, an
U.S. President Jimmy Carter grew up at Archery on his family's farm from age four, in 1928, until he left for college in 1941. In Carter's time, the population consisted of approximately 25 black families and 2 white families, namely the Watsons and Carters. President Carter recalled in 1976 that Bishop Johnson was "the best-educated, most famous, the most widely traveled, and the richest member of the community". The Carter family remained at Archery until 1949; ownership of the Carter property was transferred to the National Park Service in 1994.