Arceuthobium

Dwarf mistletoes
Arceuthobium abietinum 1.jpg
Arceuthobium abietinum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Core eudicots
Order: Santalales
Family: Santalaceae
Genus: Arceuthobium
M.Bieb.
Species

See list of Arceuthobium species

The genus Arceuthobium, commonly called dwarf mistletoes, is a genus of 26 [1] species of parasitic plants that parasitize members of Pinaceae and Cupressaceae in North America, Central America, Asia, Europe, and Africa. Of the 42 species, 39 and 21 are endemic to North America and the United States, respectively. They all have very reduced shoots and leaves (mostly reduced to scales) with the bulk of the plant living under the host's bark. Recently the number of species within the genus has been reduced to 26 as a result of more detailed genetic analysis. [1]

Description

Female plant of A. vaginatum susbp. cryptopodum on Ponderosa pine.

They are dioecious, individual plants being either male or female. The fruit is unusual in that it builds up hydrostatic pressure internally when ripe and shoots the single sticky seed up to speeds nearly 50 miles per hour (80 km/h), an example of rapid plant movement. The lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium americanum, has been found to explosively-disperse its seeds through thermogenesis. [2] Dwarf mistletoe seeds are enveloped in a hygroscopic, glue-like substance called viscin. Many fail to land on a suitable host's shoot, but some succeed, and in this way they are spread through the forests as a pest front. The spread of dwarf mistletoes in forest stands is greatest from the overstory to the understory, due to gravity. Advantageous stand conditions for the spread of dwarf mistletoes include an uneven-aged stand structure with severely infected hosts in dominant and codominant crown classes, species composition dominated by the primary host, and tree densities that are between 175 - 500 trees/ha.

There are also a number of species from Europe and Asia including one of the smallest in the genus, A. minutissimum that lives on its host, Pinus wallichiana in the Himalaya.

Other Languages
Cebuano: Arceuthobium
Deutsch: Zwergmisteln
español: Arceuthobium
français: Arceuthobium
polski: Arceuthobium
português: Arceuthobium
русский: Арцеутобиум
svenska: Arceuthobium
Tiếng Việt: Arceuthobium
Winaray: Arceuthobium