Arabs عَرَب ( ) 'arab Total population c. 450 million (2011 est.)  Regions with significant populations Arab League 430,000,000   Significant Arab diaspora (including partial ancestry) Brazil 12,000,000  [a] France 6,000,000  Indonesia 5,000,000  Turkey 5,000,000 [b]     United States 3,500,000  Argentina 1,300,000–3,500,000  (native) Israel 1,700,000  Venezuela 1,600,000  Colombia 1,500,000  (native) Iran 1,500,000  (native) Chad 1,493,410  Mexico 1,100,000  Germany 1,000,000+   Chile 700,000  Italy 680,000  United Kingdom 366,769  Canada 380,620 ( ) 2011 Census  Netherlands 180,000  Australia 350,000  Ecuador 100,000–250,000  Honduras 150,000–200,000  Languages Arabic Religion
Islam ( Sunni · Shia · Sufi · Ibadi · ) Alawite Sizable minority: Christianity ( Greek Orthodox · ) Greek Catholic Smaller minority: Other monotheistic religions( Druze · ) Bahá'í Faith Arabian mythology Related ethnic groups Other , especially Afroasiatic-speaking peoples such as Semitic peoples and Assyrians Jews        Arab ethnicity should not be confused with non-Arab ethnicities that are also native to the Arab world. a  Not all Arabs are Muslims and not all Muslims are Arabs. An Arab can follow any religion or irreligion. b c is defined independently of religious identity. Arab identity Arabs ( /;  : Arabic عَرَب ISO 233 ‘arab, Arabic pronunciation [ˈʕarab] () are a population inhabiting the ) listen . They primarily live in the Arab world in Arab states , Western Asia , the North Africa , and western Horn of Africa . Indian Ocean islands They also form a significant  , with Arab communities established around the world. diaspora 
The first mention of Arabs is from the mid-ninth century BCE as a tribal people in eastern and southern
, and the north of the Syria . Arabian Peninsula The Arabs appear to have been under the  of the vassalage (911–612 BCE), and the succeeding Neo-Assyrian Empire (626–539 BCE), Neo-Babylonian (539–332 BCE), Achaemenid and Seleucid empires. Parthian  , most notably the Arab tribes and Ghassanids , begin to appear in the southern Lakhmids from the mid 3rd century CE onward, during the mid to later stages of the Syrian Desert and Roman empires. Sasanian Tradition holds that Arabs descend from  , the son of Ishmael . Abraham The  is the birthplace of "Arab", Arabian Desert as well other Arab groups that spread in the land and existed for millennia.  
Before the expansion of the
(632–661), "Arab" referred to any of the largely Rashidun Caliphate and settled nomadic from the Semitic people , Arabian Peninsula , North and Lower Syrian Desert . Mesopotamia Today, "Arab" refers to a large number of people whose native regions form the Arab world due to the spread of Arabs and the  throughout the region during the Arabic language of the 7th and 8th centuries and the subsequent early Muslim conquests of indigenous populations. Arabisation The Arabs forged the  (632–661), Rashidun (661–750), Umayyad (750–1517) and the Abbasid (901–1071) caliphates, whose borders reached southern Fatimid in the west, France in the east, China in the north, and the Anatolia in the south. This was one of the Sudan . largest land empires in history In the early 20th century, the  signalled the end of the First World War ; which had ruled much of the Arab world since conquering the Ottoman Empire in 1517. Mamluk Sultanate This resulted in the  of the empire and the defeat and dissolution , forming the modern Arab states. partition of its territories Following the adoption of the  in 1944, the Alexandria Protocol was founded on 22 March 1945. Arab League The  endorsed the principle of an Charter of the Arab League whilst respecting the individual sovereignty of its member states. Arab homeland 
Today, Arabs primarily inhabit the 22 Arab states within the Arab League:
, Algeria , Bahrain , Comoros , Djibouti , Egypt , Iraq , Jordan , Kuwait , Lebanon , Libya , Mauritania , Morocco , Oman , Palestine , Qatar , Saudi Arabia , Somalia , Sudan , Syria , Tunisia and United Arab Emirates . The Arab world stretches around 13 million km Yemen 2, from the in the west to the Atlantic Ocean in the east, and from the Arabian Sea in the north to the Mediterranean Sea and the Horn of Africa in the southeast. Beyond the boundaries of the League of Arab States, Arabs can also be found in the global Indian Ocean . diaspora The ties that bind Arabs are ethnic,  , linguistic , historical, cultural , identical , nationalist and geographical . political The Arabs have their own customs, language,  , architecture , art , literature , music , dance , media , cuisine , dress , society and sports . mythology The total number of Arabs are an estimated 450 million.  
Arabs are a diverse group in terms of religious affiliations and practices. In the
era, most Arabs followed pre-Islamic religions. Some tribes had adopted polytheistic or Christianity , and a few individuals, the Judaism , apparently observed hanifs . monotheism Today, Arabs are mostly adherents of  , with sizable Christian minorities. Islam  primarily belong to the Arab Muslims , Sunni , Shiite , and Ibadi denominations. Alawite generally follow one of the Arab Christians , such as the Eastern Christian Churches or Greek Orthodox churches. Greek Catholic Other smaller  are also followed, such as the minority religions and Bahá'í Faith . Druze
Arabs have greatly influenced and contributed to diverse fields, notably the arts and architecture,
, language , mythology, philosophy , literature, politics, business, music, dance, ethics , cinema , medicine and science technology in the ancient and modern history. Arab people are generally known for their  and generosity hospitality as well as their  and beliefs . family values 
The earliest documented use of the word "Arab" to refer to a people appears in the
, an Kurkh Monoliths record of the ninth century BCE Akkadian language , which referred to Assyrian conquest of Aram of the Bedouins under Arabian Peninsula , who fought as part of a coalition opposed to King Gindibu . Assyria Listed among the booty captured by the army of king  of Shalmaneser III in the Assyria are 1000 camels of "Gi-in-di-bu'u the ar-ba-a-a" or "[the man] Gindibu belonging to the Battle of Qarqar Arab ( ar-ba-a-a being an adjectival of the noun nisba ʿarab ). The related word  ʾaʿrāb is still used to refer to Bedouins today, in contrast to ʿarab which refers to Arabs in general.
The oldest surviving indication of an Arab national identity is an inscription made in an archaic form of Arabic in 328 using the
, which refers to Nabataean alphabet as "King of all the Arabs". Imru' al-Qays ibn 'Amr   refers to the Arabs in the Sinai, southern Palestine, and the frankincense region (Southern Arabia). Other ancient Greek historians like Herodotus , Agatharchides and Diodorus Siculus mention Arabs living in Mesopotamia (along the Euphrates), in Egypt (the Sinai and the Red Sea), southern Jordan (the Strabo ), the Syrian steppe and in eastern Arabia (the people of Nabataeans ). Inscriptions dating to the 6th century BCE in Yemen include the term "Arab". Gerrha
The most popular Arab account holds that the word "Arab" came from an
father called eponymous who was supposedly the first to speak Arabic. Ya'rub had another view; he states that Arabs were called Abu Muhammad al-Hasan al-Hamdani Gharab ("West") by because Bedouins originally resided to the west of Mesopotamia; the term was then corrupted into "Arab".
Yet another view is held by
that the word "Arabs" was initially applied to the al-Masudi of the " Ishmaelites " valley. In Biblical etymology, "Arab" (in Hebrew Arabah Arvi ) comes both from the desert origin of the Bedouins it originally described ( Arava means wilderness).
ʿ-r-b has several additional meanings in Semitic languages—including "west/sunset," "desert," "mingle," "mixed," "merchant," and "raven"—and are "comprehensible" with all of these having varying degrees of relevance to the emergence of the name. It is also possible that some forms were from metathetical ʿ-B-R "moving around" (Arabic ʿ-B-R "traverse"), and hence, it is alleged, "nomadic."
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