Aphrodite

Aphrodite
Goddess of love, beauty and sexuality
NAMA Aphrodite Syracuse.jpg
Aphrodite Pudica (Roman copy of 2nd century AD), National Archaeological Museum, Athens
AbodeMount Olympus
SymbolDolphin, Rose, Scallop Shell, Myrtle, Dove, Sparrow, Girdle, Mirror, Pearl and Swan
Personal information
ConsortHephaestus, Ares, Poseidon, Hermes, Dionysus, Adonis, and Anchises
ChildrenWith Ares: Eros,[1] Phobos, Deimos, Harmonia, Pothos, Anteros, Himeros,
With Hermes: Hermaphroditus,
With Poseidon: Rhodos, Eryx,
With Dionysus: Peitho, The Graces, Priapus,
With Anchises: Aeneas
ParentsIn the Iliad: Zeus and Dione[2]
In Theogony: Uranus's severed genitals[3]
SiblingsAeacus, Angelos, Apollo, Ares, Artemis, Athena, Dionysus, Eileithyia, Enyo, Eris, Ersa, Hebe, Helen of Troy, Hephaestus, Heracles, Hermes, Minos, Pandia, Persephone, Perseus, Rhadamanthus, the Graces, the Horae, the Litae, the Muses, the Moirai, or the Titans, the Cyclopes, the Meliae, the Erinyes (Furies), the Giants, the Hekatonkheires
Equivalents
Roman equivalentVenus
Mesopotamian equivalentInanna/Ishtar
Canaanite equivalentAstarte

Aphrodite[a] is an ancient Greek goddess associated with love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation. She is identified with the planet Venus, which is named after the Roman goddess Venus, with whom Aphrodite was extensively syncretized. Aphrodite's major symbols include myrtles, roses, doves, sparrows, and swans.

The cult of Aphrodite was largely derived from that of the Phoenician goddess Astarte, a cognate of the East Semitic goddess Ishtar, whose cult was based on the Sumerian cult of Inanna. Aphrodite's main cult centers were Cythera, Cyprus, Corinth, and Athens. Her main festival was the Aphrodisia, which was celebrated annually in midsummer. In Laconia, Aphrodite was worshipped as a warrior goddess. She was also the patron goddess of prostitutes, an association which led early scholars to propose the concept of "sacred prostitution", an idea which is now generally seen as erroneous.

In Hesiod's Theogony, Aphrodite is born off the coast of Cythera from the foam (aphros) produced by Uranus's genitals, which his son Cronus has severed and thrown into the sea. In Homer's Iliad, however, she is the daughter of Zeus and Dione. Plato, in his Symposium 180e, asserts that these two origins actually belong to separate entities: Aphrodite Ourania (a transcendent, "Heavenly" Aphrodite) and Aphrodite Pandemos (Aphrodite common to "all the people"). Aphrodite had many other epithets, each emphasizing a different aspect of the same goddess, or used by a different local cult. Thus she was also known as Cytherea (Lady of Cythera) and Cypris (Lady of Cyprus), due to the fact that both locations claimed to be the place of her birth.

In Greek mythology, Aphrodite was married to Hephaestus, the god of blacksmiths and metalworking. Despite this, Aphrodite was frequently unfaithful to him and had many lovers; in the Odyssey, she is caught in the act of adultery with Ares, the god of war. In the First Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite, she seduces the mortal shepherd Anchises. Aphrodite was also the surrogate mother and lover of the mortal shepherd Adonis, who was killed by a wild boar. Along with Athena and Hera, Aphrodite was one of the three goddesses whose feud resulted in the beginning of the Trojan War and she plays a major role throughout the Iliad. Aphrodite has been featured in western art as a symbol of female beauty and has appeared in numerous works of western literature. She is a major deity in modern Neopagan religions, including the Church of Aphrodite, Wicca, and Hellenismos.

Etymology

Hesiod derives Aphrodite from aphrós (ἀφρός) "sea-foam",[4] interpreting the name as "risen from the foam",[5][4] but most modern scholars regard this as a spurious folk etymology.[4][6] Early modern scholars of classical mythology attempted to argue that Aphrodite's name was of Greek or Indo-European origin,[6] but these efforts have now been mostly abandoned.[6] Aphrodite's name is generally accepted to be of non-Greek, probably Semitic, origin,[6] but its exact derivation cannot be determined.[6]

Scholars in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, accepting Hesiod's "foam" etymology as genuine, analyzed the second part of Aphrodite's name as *-odítē "wanderer"[7] or *-dítē "bright".[8][9] Michael Janda, also accepting Hesiod's etymology, has argued in favor of the latter of these interpretations[10][11] and claims the story of a birth from the foam as an Indo-European mytheme.[10][11] Likewise, Witczak proposes an Indo-European compound *abʰor- "very" and *dʰei- "to shine", also referring to Eos.[12] Other scholars have argued that these hypotheses are unlikely since Aphrodite's attributes are entirely different from those of both Eos and the Vedic deity Ushas.[13][14]

A number of improbable non-Greek etymologies have also been suggested. One Semitic etymology compares Aphrodite to the Assyrian barīrītu, the name of a female demon that appears in Middle Babylonian and Late Babylonian texts.[15] Hammarström[16] looks to Etruscan, comparing (e)prϑni "lord", an Etruscan honorific loaned into Greek as πρύτανις.[17][18][19] This would make the theonym in origin an honorific, "the lady".[17][18] Most scholars reject this etymology as implausible,[17][18][19] especially since Aphrodite actually appears in Etruscan in the borrowed form Apru (from Greek Aphrō, clipped form of Aphrodite).[18] The medieval Etymologicum Magnum (c. 1150) offers a highly contrived etymology, deriving Aphrodite from the compound habrodíaitos (ἁβροδίαιτος), "she who lives delicately", from habrós and díaita. The alteration from b to ph is explained as a "familiar" characteristic of Greek "obvious from the Macedonians".[20]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Afrodite
Alemannisch: Aphrodite
العربية: أفروديت
aragonés: Afrodita
asturianu: Afrodita
azərbaycanca: Afrodita
Bân-lâm-gú: Aphrodite
башҡортса: Афродита
беларуская: Афрадыта
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Афрадыта
български: Афродита
Boarisch: Aphrodite
bosanski: Afrodita
brezhoneg: Afrodite
català: Afrodita
čeština: Afrodita
Cymraeg: Aphrodite
dansk: Afrodite
Deutsch: Aphrodite
eesti: Aphrodite
español: Afrodita
Esperanto: Afrodito (diino)
euskara: Afrodita
فارسی: آفرودیته
français: Aphrodite
Frysk: Afrodite
Gaeilge: Afraidíté
galego: Afrodita
ગુજરાતી: અૅફ્રોડાઈટી
한국어: 아프로디테
Hawaiʻi: ʻAperodite
հայերեն: Աֆրոդիտե
hrvatski: Afrodita
Ilokano: Aprodita
Bahasa Indonesia: Afrodit
interlingua: Aphrodite
íslenska: Afródíta
italiano: Afrodite
עברית: אפרודיטה
Basa Jawa: Afrodit
kalaallisut: Afrodite
ქართული: აფროდიტე
қазақша: Афродита
Kiswahili: Afrodita
kurdî: Afrodît
Кыргызча: Афродита
Latina: Aphrodite
latviešu: Afrodīte
Lëtzebuergesch: Aphrodite
lietuvių: Afroditė
magyar: Aphrodité
македонски: Афродита
مصرى: افروديت
مازِرونی: آفرودیته
Bahasa Melayu: Aphrodite
монгол: Афродита
Nederlands: Aphrodite
norsk: Afrodite
norsk nynorsk: Afrodite
occitan: Afrodita
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Afrodita
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਐਫਰੋਡਾਇਟੀ
Plattdüütsch: Aphrodite
polski: Afrodyta
português: Afrodite
română: Afrodita
русский: Афродита
Scots: Aphrodite
shqip: Afërdita
Simple English: Aphrodite
slovenčina: Afrodita
slovenščina: Afrodita
српски / srpski: Афродита
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Afrodita
suomi: Afrodite
svenska: Afrodite
Tagalog: Aphrodite
татарча/tatarça: Afrodita
тоҷикӣ: Афродита
Türkçe: Afrodit
українська: Афродіта
vepsän kel’: Afrodita
Tiếng Việt: Aphrodite
Võro: Aphrodite
Winaray: Aphrodite