Antonov An-124 Ruslan

An-124 Ruslan
An-124 RA-82028 in formation with Su-27 09-May-2010 (cropped).jpg
An An-124 of 224th Flight Unit
RoleTransport aircraft
National originSoviet Union
Design groupAntonov
Built byAviastar-SP
Antonov Serial Production Plant (former)
First flight24 December 1982[1]
StatusIn service
Primary usersRussian Air Force
Antonov Airlines
Volga-Dnepr Airlines
Number built55[2]
Unit cost
US$70–100 million[3]
Developed intoAntonov An-225

The Antonov An-124 Ruslan (Ukrainian: Антонов Ан-124 "Руслан") (NATO reporting name: Condor) is a strategic airlift quadjet. It was designed in the 1980s by the Antonov design bureau in the Ukrainian SSR, then part of the Soviet Union (USSR). Until the Boeing 747-8F, the An-124 was, for thirty years, the world's heaviest gross weight production cargo airplane and second heaviest operating cargo aircraft, behind the one-off Antonov An-225 (a greatly enlarged design based on the An-124).[5] The An-124 remains the largest military transport aircraft in current service.[6] The lead designer of the An-124 (and the An-225) was Viktor Tolmachev.[7]

During development it was known as Izdeliye 400 (Product #400) in house, and An-40 in the West. First flown in 1982, civil certification was issued on 30 December 1992.[8] In July 2013, 26 An-124s were in commercial service with 10 on order.[9] In August 2014, it was reported that plans to resume joint production of the Antonov An-124 had been shelved due to the ongoing political tensions between Russia and Ukraine.[10] The sole remaining production facility is Russia's Aviastar-SP in Ulianovsk. The various operators of the An-124 are in discussions with respect to the continuing airworthiness certification of the individual An-124 planes. The original designer of the An-124 is responsible for managing the certification process for its own products, but Russian/Ukrainian conflicts are making this process difficult to manage. Military operators are able to self-certify the airworthiness of their own aircraft, but Russian civil operators must find a credible outside authority for certification if Ukraine is unable to participate in the process.[11]


During the 1970s, the Military Transport Aviation (Komandovaniye voyenno-transportnoy aviatsii or VTA) arm of the Soviet Air Forces had a shortfall in strategic heavy airlift capacity. Its largest planes consisted of about 50 Antonov An-22 turboprops, which were used heavily for tactical roles. A declassified 1975 CIA analysis concluded that the USSR did "...not match the US in ability to provide long-range heavy lift support."[12]

Polet Airlines An-124 cockpit

The An-124 was manufactured in parallel by two plants: the Russian company Aviastar-SP (ex. Ulyanovsk Aviation Industrial Complex) and by the Kyiv Aviation Plant AVIANT, in Ukraine. Design work started in 1971 and construction of facilities began in 1973. Manufacturing on the first airframe began in 1979.[13] Ultimately this project brought together over 100 factories contracted to produce systems and parts.

The first flight took place in December 1982 and the first exposure to the West followed in 1985 at the Paris Air Show.[14] In the early 2000s, Volga-Dnepr upgraded its freighters with engine improvements to meet Chapter 4 noise regulations, structural improvements to increase service life, and avionics and systems changes for four persons operations down from six or seven.[15]

Russia and Ukraine agreed to resume the production in the third quarter of 2008.[16] In May 2008, a new variant—the An-124-150—was announced; it featured several improvements, including a maximum lift capacity of 150 tonnes.[17] However, in May 2009, Antonov's partner, the Russian United Aircraft Corporation announced it did not plan production of An-124s in the period 2009–2012.[18] In late 2009, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev ordered production of the aircraft resumed. It is expected that Russia will purchase 20 new aircraft.[19][20] In August 2014, Jane's reported that, Russian Deputy Minister of Industry and Trade Yuri Slusar announced that Antonov An-124 production was stopped due to ongoing political tensions between Russia and Ukraine.[10]

As of late 2017, An-124s are being upgraded by the Aviastar-SP plant in Ulyanovsk, Russia, with three upgraded planes due to be ready by 2018.[21] After Russia–Ukraine relations soured, Antonov had to source new suppliers and pushes to westernize the An-124. In 2018, GE Aviation was studying reengining it with CF6s for CargoLogicAir, a Volga-Dnepr subsidiary. This would likely provide a range increase, and Volga-Dnepr Group operates 12 aircraft, implying a 50-60 engines with spares program.[15] In January 2019, Antonov revealed its plans to restart the An-124 production without support from Russia.[22]

Russian replacement design

At MAKS Air Show in 2017, the TsAGI announced its Slon (elephant) design to replace the similar An-124. The design was detailed in January 2019 before Wind tunnel testing scheduled for August-September. It should be produced at the Aviastar-SP factory in Ulyanovsk but would be a difficult investment without substantial foreign orders. It should transport 150 t (330,000 lb) over 3,800 nmi (7,000 km) (up from 1,675 nmi, 3,102 km), or 180 t (400,000 lb) over 2,650 nmi (4,910 km) at 460 kn (850 km/h). The Russian MoD wants a range of 4,100 nmi (7,600 km) with five Sprut-SDM-1 light tanks, their 100 crew and 300 armed soldiers.[23]

It would be larger at 82.3 m (270 ft) long from 69 m (227 ft), with a 87–88 m (286–290 ft) span versus 73.3 m (240.5 ft) and 24.0 m (78.7 ft) high compared with 21.0 m (68.9 ft). A new higher aspect ratio, composite wing and a 214–222 t (472,000–489,000 lb) airframe would allow a 490–500 t (1,080,000–1,100,000 lb) gross weight. It should be powered by Russian PD-35s developed for the CR929 widebody, producing 35 tf (77,000 lbf) up from 23 tf (51,000 lbf). Two fuselages are planned, one for Volga-Dnepr with a width of 5.3 m (17.4 ft) from the An-124's 4.4 m (14.4 ft), and one for the Russian MoD of 6.4 m (21 ft) wide to carry vehicles in two lines.[23]

Other Languages
العربية: أن 124
asturianu: Antonov An-124
azərbaycanca: Antonov An-124 Ruslan
bosanski: Antonov An-124
čeština: Antonov An-124
Ελληνικά: Antonov An-124
español: Antonov An-124
Esperanto: Antonov An-124
français: Antonov An-124
hrvatski: Antonov An-124
Bahasa Indonesia: Antonov An-124
қазақша: Ан-124
magyar: An–124
Nederlands: Antonov An-124
português: Antonov An-124
română: Antonov An-124
русский: Ан-124
Simple English: Antonov An-124
slovenčina: Antonov An-124
slovenščina: Antonov An-124 Ruslan
српски / srpski: Антонов Ан-124
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Antonov An-124
тыва дыл: Ан-124
українська: Ан-124 «Руслан»
Tiếng Việt: Antonov An-124