Viceroy of New Spain
Viceroy of New Spain in 1535 and governed for 15 years, longer than any subsequent viceroy. On his arrival in New Spain, he found a recently conquered territory beset with Indian unrest and rivalry among the Spanish conquerors and Spanish settlers. His difficult assignment was to govern in the king's name without making an enemy of
Hernando Cortés. Cortés himself had expected to be made the permanent ruling crown official of New Spain, since he had led the
Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire. The Emperor
Charles V (King Charles I of Spain) and the
Council of the Indies judged Cortés too independent of crown authority to be made viceroy and had created a high court (audiencia) in New Spain in 1528, appointing
Nuño de Guzmán, a rival of Cortés as its president to counter Cortés's power.
 In 1530 the crown granted Cortés the title of the Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca with multiple
encomiendas. With the arrival of Viceroy Mendoza in 1535, Cortés pursued his own economic interests from his palace in Cuernavaca.
Although the Spanish had occupied and expanded explorations, conquest, and settlement in the Caribbean, it was not until the conquest of central Mexico that the crown appointed a viceroy (vice king), who would be the king's living image in Mexico and envisioned to effectively assert royal authority in the Kingdom of New Spain.
 Mendoza's status as a noble and his family's loyalty to the Spanish crown made him a suitable candidate for appointment.
Don Antonio and Bishop
Juan de Zumárraga were key in the formation of two institutions of
Colegio de Santa Cruz at
Tlatelolco (1536), where the sons of
Aztec nobles studied
music, and the
Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico (1552), modeled on the
University of Salamanca, which trained young men for the Catholic Church. These institutions were the first and second universities respectively to be established in the mainland of the
Americas. In 1536 he began the minting of silver and copper coins, known as macuquinas. Also under his instructions, the first
printing press in the New World was brought to Mexico in 1539, by printer
Juan Pablos (Giovanni Paoli). The first book printed in Mexico:
La Escala Espiritual de San Juan Clímaco. On May 18, 1541 don Antonio founded the city of Valladolid (now
When the Spanish crown issued the
New Laws that put restrictions on the grants of elite conquerors awarded grants of labor
encomenderos, the viceroy prudently refrained from implementing the most draconian aspects of the edicts, which no longer permitted an encomendero family holding the grant in perpetuity. In Peru, the implementation of the New Laws resulted in outright rebellion and the assassination of the viceroy.
 Mendoza's policy of obedezco pero no cumplo ("I obey but do not comply") meant "I respect the authority of the crown, but in my judgment I do not implement particular legislation."
In 1542 an
insurrection of the
Indians, called the
Mixtón Rebellion threatened to push the Spaniards out of northwestern Mexico, bringing the area under indigenous control. The Viceroy himself had to take the field and bring all disposable manpower. The rebellion was quenched and the surviving Indians were harshly punished. By the viceroy's order men, women and children were seized and executed, some by cannon fire, some torn apart by dogs, and others stabbed.
 In 1548 he suppressed an uprising of the
As viceroy, Mendoza commissioned the expedition of
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado to explore and establish settlements in the northern lands of New Spain in 1540-42, the expedition of
Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo to explore the western coastline of
Alta California in 1542-43, and the expedition of
Ruy López de Villalobos to the
Philippines in 1542-43. The
Codex Mendoza is named for him. He probably commissioned it.
During his term of office, Mendoza is credited with consolidating the sovereignty of the Crown throughout the Spanish conquests in New Spain and limiting the power and ambition of the first
conquistadors. Many of the political and economic policies he established endured throughout the entire colonial period. He promoted the construction of hospitals and schools and encouraged improvements in agriculture, ranching and mining. His administration did much to bring stability and peace to New Spain. He died in
He was succeeded as viceroy of New Spain by Don
Luis de Velasco. It is reported that his advice to his successor was: "Do little and do that slowly."