Early life and training
Antonello was born at
Messina around 1429–1431, to Garita (Margherita) and Giovanni de Antonio Mazonus.
According to a letter written in 1524 by the Neapolitan humanist
Pietro Summonte, in about 1450 he was a pupil of the painter
Niccolò Colantonio at
 where Netherlandish painting was then fashionable. This account of his training is accepted by most art historians.
Antonello returned to Messina from Naples during the 1450s. In around 1455 he painted the so-called
Sibiu Crucifixion, inspired by Flemish treatments of the subject, which is now in the Muzeul de Artǎ in Bucharest. A Crucifixion in the Royal Museum of Antwerp dates from the same period. These early works shows a marked Flemish influence, which is now understood to be inspired by his master Colantonio and from paintings by
Rogier van der Weyden and
Jan van Eyck that belonged to Colantonio's patron,
Alfonso V of Aragon.
In his biography of the artist, Giorgio Vasari remarked that Antonello saw an oil painting by Jan Van Eyck (the Lomellini Tryptych) belonging to King Alfonso V of Aragon at Naples. Another theory, supported only by vague documentary evidence, suggests that in 1456 Antonello visited Milan, where he might have met Van Eyck's most accomplished follower,
Petrus Christus. Since Antonello was one of the first Italians to master Eyckian oil painting, and Christus was the first Netherlandish painter to learn Italian linear perspective, such a meeting would be a convenient explanation for the evolution of the styles of both artists. However, neither is known for certain to have been in Milan at the time.
Between the years of 1456 and 1457, Antonello proved himself to be a master painter in Messina. He also shared his home with Paolo di Ciacio, a student from Calabria.
 The artist's earliest documented commission, in 1457, was for a banner for the Confraternità di San Michele dei Gerbini in
Reggio Calabria, where he set up a workshop for the production of such banners and devotional images. At this date, he was already married, and his son
Jacobello had been born.
In 1460, his father is mentioned leasing a
brigantine to bring back Antonello and his family from
Calabria. In that year, Antonello painted the so-called
Salting Madonna, in which standard iconography and Flemish style are combined with a greater attention in the volumetric proportions of the figures, probably indicating a knowledge of works by
Piero della Francesca. Also from around 1460 are two small panels depicting
Abraham Served by the Angels and St. Jerome Penitent now in the
Museo Nazionale della Magna Grecia in
Reggio Calabria. In 1461 Antonello's younger brother Giordano entered his workshop, signing a three-year contract. In that year Antonello painted a Madonna with Child for the Messinese nobleman Giovanni Mirulla, now lost.
Historians believe that Antonello painted his first portraits in the late 1460s. They follow a
Netherlandish model, the subject being shown bust-length, against a dark background, full face or in three-quarter view, while most previous Italian painters had adopted the medal-style profile pose for individual portraits.
John Pope-Hennessy described him as "the first Italian painter for whom the individual portrait was an art form in its own right".
Although Antonello is mentioned in many documents between 1460 and 1465, establishing his presence in Messina in those years, a gap in the sources between 1465 and 1471 suggests that he may have spent these years on the mainland. In 1474, he painted the Annunciation, now in
Syracuse, and the
St. Jerome in His Study also dates from around this time.
Antonello went to
Venice in 1475 and remained there until the fall of 1476. His works of this period begin to show a greater attention to the human figure, regarding both anatomy and expressivity, indicating the influence of Piero della Francesca and
Giovanni Bellini. His most famous pictures from this period include the Condottiero (Louvre), the
San Cassiano Altarpiece and the
St. Sebastian. The San Cassiano Altarpiece was especially influential on Venetian painters, as it was one of the first of the large compositions in the
sacra conversazione format which was perfected by Giovanni Bellini (Antonello's surviving work in Vienna is only a fragment of a much larger original).
While in Venice he was offered, but did not accept, the opportunity to become the court portrait painter to the
Duke of Milan.
Return to Messina and death
Antonello had returned to Sicily by September 1476. Works from near the end of his life include the famous
Virgin Annunciate, now in the
Palazzo Abatellis in
Palermo, and the
San Gregorio Polyptych.
He died at Messina in 1479. His testament dates from February of that year, and he is documented as no longer alive two months later. Some of his last works remained unfinished, but were completed by his son Jacobello.