Anti-tobacco movement in Nazi Germany
In the early 20th century, German researchers made advances in
The German movement was the most powerful anti-smoking movement in the world during the 1930s and early 1940s. However, tobacco control policy was incoherent and ineffective, with uncoordinated and often regional efforts by many actors. Obvious measures were not taken, and existing measures were not enforced. Some Nazi leaders condemned smoking and several of them openly criticized tobacco consumption, but others publicly smoked and denied that it was harmful. There was much research on smoking and its effects on health during Nazi rule, and it was the most important of its type at that time; but a directly-supported tobacco research institute produced work of only marginal scientific importance.
The Nazi anti-tobacco campaign included banning smoking in trams, buses, and city trains, promoting health education, limiting cigarette rations in the
The movement did not reduce the number of smokers. Tobacco use increased rapidly in the early years of the Nazi regime, between 1933 and 1939. The
Anti-smoking measures have a long history in German-speaking areas. For instance, in 1840, the
In 1920, a Bund Deutscher Tabakgegner in der Tschechoslowakei (Federation of German Tobacco Opponents in Czechoslovakia) was formed in