Ancient Greece

The Parthenon, a temple dedicated to Athena, located on the Acropolis in Athens, is one of the most representative symbols of the culture and sophistication of the ancient Greeks.
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Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c. AD 600). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era.[1] Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the period of Archaic Greece and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin. This was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedonia, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea. The Hellenistic period came to an end with the conquests and annexations of the eastern Mediterranean world by the Roman Republic, which established the Roman province of Macedonia in Roman Greece, and later the province of Achaea during the Roman Empire.

Classical Greek culture, especially philosophy, had a powerful influence on ancient Rome, which carried a version of it to many parts of the Mediterranean Basin and Europe. For this reason, Classical Greece is generally considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture and is considered the cradle of Western civilization.[2][3][4]

Classical Greek culture gave a lot of importance to knowledge. Science and religion were not separate and getting closer to the truth meant getting closer to the gods. In this context, they understood the importance of mathematics as an instrument for obtaining more reliable ("divine") knowledge.[5] Greek culture, in a few centuries and with a limited population, managed to explore and make progress in many fields of science, mathematics, philosophy and knowledge in general.

Chronology

Classical Antiquity in the Mediterranean region is commonly considered to have begun in the 8th century BC[6] (around the time of the earliest recorded poetry of Homer) and ended in the 6th century AD.

Classical Antiquity in Greece was preceded by the Greek Dark Ages (c. 1200 – c. 800 BC), archaeologically characterised by the protogeometric and geometric styles of designs on pottery. Following the Dark Ages was the Archaic Period, beginning around the 8th century BC. The Archaic Period saw early developments in Greek culture and society which formed the basis for the Classical Period.[7] After the Archaic Period, the Classical Period in Greece is conventionally considered to have lasted from the Persian invasion of Greece in 480 until the death of Alexander the Great in 323.[8] The period is characterized by a style which was considered by later observers to be exemplary, i.e., "classical", as shown in the Parthenon, for instance. Politically, the Classical Period was dominated by Athens and the Delian League during the 5th century, but displaced by Spartan hegemony during the early 4th century BC, before power shifted to Thebes and the Boeotian League and finally to the League of Corinth led by Macedon. This period saw the Greco-Persian Wars and the Rise of Macedon.

Following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period (323–146 BC), during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East. This period begins with the death of Alexander and ends with the Roman conquest. Roman Greece is usually considered to be the period between Roman victory over the Corinthians at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC and the establishment of Byzantium by Constantine as the capital of the Roman Empire in AD 330. Finally, Late Antiquity refers to the period of Christianization during the later 4th to early 6th centuries AD, sometimes taken to be complete with the closure of the Academy of Athens by Justinian I in 529.[9]

Other Languages
aragonés: Antiga Grecia
azərbaycanca: Qədim Yunanıstan
Bân-lâm-gú: Kó͘-tāi Hi-lia̍p
башҡортса: Боронғо Греция
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Старажытная Грэцыя
български: Древна Гърция
bosanski: Antička Grčka
brezhoneg: Henc'hres
буряад: Эртын Греци
Чӑвашла: Авалхи Греци
Ελληνικά: Αρχαία Ελλάδα
español: Antigua Grecia
Esperanto: Antikva Grekio
Fiji Hindi: Purana Greece
føroyskt: Forna Grikkaland
français: Grèce antique
贛語: 古希臘
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Kú Hî-lia̍p
한국어: 고대 그리스
hrvatski: Stara Grčka
Bahasa Indonesia: Yunani Kuno
interlingua: Grecia antique
italiano: Antica Grecia
Basa Jawa: Yunani kuna
Kiswahili: Ugiriki ya Kale
Kreyòl ayisyen: Grès ansyen
latviešu: Senā Grieķija
македонски: Стара Грција
Bahasa Melayu: Yunani Purba
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gū Hĭ-lé-nà̤
Mirandés: Grécia Antiga
монгол: Эртний Грек
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ရှေးခေတ်ဂရိ
Nederlands: Oude Griekenland
नेपाल भाषा: प्राचीन यवन
Napulitano: Grecia antica
norsk nynorsk: Hellas i antikken
олык марий: Акрет Греций
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Qadimgi Yunoniston
پنجابی: پرانا یونان
Перем Коми: Важ Эллада
Piemontèis: Grecia antica
Plattdüütsch: Ool Grekenland
português: Grécia Antiga
română: Grecia Antică
Runa Simi: Mawk'a Grisya
русиньскый: Старовіке Ґрецько
саха тыла: Былыргы Греция
sicilianu: Grecia antica
Simple English: Ancient Greece
slovenčina: Staroveké Grécko
slovenščina: Antična Grčija
српски / srpski: Античка Грчка
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Antička Grčka
татарча/tatarça: Борынгы Греция
тоҷикӣ: Юнони Қадим
Türkmençe: Gadymy Gresiýa
українська: Стародавня Греція
vèneto: Gresia antica
Tiếng Việt: Hy Lạp cổ đại
文言: 古希臘
Winaray: Hadton Gresya
吴语: 古希腊
粵語: 古希臘
žemaitėška: Senuobės Graikėjė
中文: 古希腊
ГӀалгӀай: Шира Эллада
Lingua Franca Nova: Elas antica