Map of ancient Egypt, showing major cities and sites of the Dynastic period (c. 3150 BC to 30 BC)
Nile has been the lifeline of its region for much of human history.
 The fertile floodplain of the Nile gave humans the opportunity to develop a settled agricultural economy and a more sophisticated, centralized society that became a cornerstone in the history of human civilization.
hunter-gatherers began living in the Nile valley through the end of the
Middle Pleistocene some 120,000 years ago. By the late
Paleolithic period, the arid climate of Northern Africa became increasingly hot and dry, forcing the populations of the area to concentrate along the river region.
A typical Naqada II jar decorated with gazelles. (Predynastic Period)
In Predynastic and
Early Dynastic times, the Egyptian climate was much less arid than it is today. Large regions of Egypt were covered in treed
savanna and traversed by herds of grazing
ungulates. Foliage and fauna were far more prolific in all environs and the Nile region supported large populations of waterfowl. Hunting would have been common for Egyptians, and this is also the period when many animals were first
5500 BC, small tribes living in the Nile valley had developed into a series of cultures demonstrating firm control of agriculture and
animal husbandry, and identifiable by their pottery and personal items, such as combs, bracelets, and beads. The largest of these early cultures in upper (Southern) Egypt was the
Badari, which probably originated in the Western Desert; it was known for its high quality ceramics,
stone tools, and its use of copper.
The Badari was followed by the
Amratian (Naqada I) and
Gerzeh (Naqada II) cultures,
 which brought a number of technological improvements. As early as the Naqada I Period, predynastic Egyptians imported
Ethiopia, used to shape blades and other objects from
 In Naqada II times, early evidence exists of contact with the
Near East, particularly
Canaan and the
 Over a period of about 1,000 years, the Naqada culture developed from a few small farming communities into a powerful civilization whose leaders were in complete control of the people and resources of the Nile valley.
 Establishing a power center at
Hierakonpolis, and later at
Naqada III leaders expanded their control of Egypt northwards along the
 They also traded with
Nubia to the south, the oases of the
western desert to the west, and the cultures of the
eastern Mediterranean and
Near East to the east.
The Naqada culture manufactured a diverse selection of material goods, reflective of the increasing power and wealth of the elite, as well as societal personal-use items, which included combs, small statuary, painted pottery, high quality
decorative stone vases,
cosmetic palettes, and jewelry made of gold, lapis, and ivory. They also developed a
ceramic glaze known as
faience, which was used well into the Roman Period to decorate cups, amulets, and figurines.
 During the last predynastic phase, the Naqada culture began using written symbols that eventually were developed into a full system of
hieroglyphs for writing the ancient Egyptian language.
Early Dynastic Period (c. 3050–2686 BC)
The Early Dynastic Period was approximately contemporary to the early
Akkadian civilisation of
Mesopotamia and of ancient
Elam. The third-century BC Egyptian priest
Manetho grouped the long line of pharaohs from Menes to his own time into 30 dynasties, a system still used today.
 He chose to begin his official history with the king named "Meni" (or
Menes in Greek) who was believed to have united the two kingdoms of
Lower Egypt (around 3100 BC).
The transition to a unified state happened more gradually than ancient Egyptian writers represented, and there is no contemporary record of Menes. Some scholars now believe, however, that the mythical Menes may have been the pharaoh
Narmer, who is depicted wearing
royal regalia on the ceremonial Narmer Palette, in a symbolic act of unification.
 In the Early Dynastic Period about 3150 BC, the first of the Dynastic pharaohs solidified control over lower Egypt by establishing a capital at
Memphis, from which he could control the
labour force and agriculture of the fertile delta region, as well as the lucrative and critical
trade routes to the
Levant. The increasing power and wealth of the pharaohs during the early dynastic period was reflected in their elaborate
mastaba tombs and mortuary cult structures at Abydos, which were used to celebrate the deified pharaoh after his death.
 The strong institution of kingship developed by the pharaohs served to legitimize state control over the land, labour, and resources that were essential to the survival and growth of ancient Egyptian civilization.
Old Kingdom (2686–2181 BC)
Major advances in architecture, art, and technology were made during the
Old Kingdom, fueled by the increased
agricultural productivity and resulting population, made possible by a well-developed central administration.
 Some of ancient Egypt's crowning achievements, the
Giza pyramids and
Great Sphinx, were constructed during the Old Kingdom. Under the direction of the
vizier, state officials collected taxes, coordinated irrigation projects to improve
crop yield, drafted peasants to work on construction projects, and established a
justice system to maintain peace and order.
Along with the rising importance of a central administration arose a new class of educated scribes and officials who were granted estates by the pharaoh in payment for their services. Pharaohs also made land grants to their mortuary cults and local temples, to ensure that these institutions had the resources to worship the pharaoh after his death. Scholars believe that five centuries of these practices slowly eroded the economic power of the pharaoh, and that the economy could no longer afford to support a large centralized administration.
 As the power of the pharaoh diminished, regional governors called
nomarchs began to challenge the supremacy of the pharaoh. This, coupled with
severe droughts between 2200 and 2150 BC,
 is assumed to have caused the country to enter the 140-year period of famine and strife known as the First Intermediate Period.
First Intermediate Period (2181–1991 BC)
central government collapsed at the end of the Old Kingdom, the administration could no longer support or stabilize the country's economy. Regional governors could not rely on the king for help in times of crisis, and the ensuing food shortages and political disputes escalated into famines and small-scale civil wars. Yet despite difficult problems, local leaders, owing no tribute to the pharaoh, used their new-found independence to establish a thriving culture in the provinces. Once in control of their own resources, the provinces became economically richer—which was demonstrated by larger and better burials among all social classes.
 In bursts of creativity, provincial artisans adopted and adapted cultural motifs formerly restricted to the royalty of the Old Kingdom, and scribes developed literary styles that expressed the
optimism and originality of the period.
Free from their loyalties to the pharaoh, local rulers began competing with each other for territorial control and
political power. By 2160 BC, rulers in
Herakleopolis controlled Lower Egypt in the north, while a rival clan based in
Intef family, took control of Upper Egypt in the south. As the Intefs grew in power and expanded their control northward, a clash between the two rival dynasties became inevitable. Around 2055 BC the northern Theban forces under
Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II finally defeated the Herakleopolitan rulers, reuniting the Two Lands. They inaugurated a period of economic and cultural renaissance known as the
Middle Kingdom (2134–1690 BC)
Amenemhat III, the last great ruler of the Middle Kingdom
The pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom restored the country's prosperity and stability, thereby stimulating a resurgence of art, literature, and monumental building projects.
 Mentuhotep II and his
Eleventh Dynasty successors ruled from Thebes, but the vizier
Amenemhat I, upon assuming kingship at the beginning of the
Twelfth Dynasty around 1985 BC, shifted the nation's capital to the city of
Itjtawy, located in
 From Itjtawy, the pharaohs of the Twelfth Dynasty undertook a far-sighted
land reclamation and irrigation scheme to increase agricultural output in the region. Moreover, the military reconquered territory in
Nubia that was rich in quarries and gold mines, while laborers built a defensive structure in the Eastern Delta, called the "
Walls-of-the-Ruler", to defend against foreign attack.
With the pharaohs' having secured military and political security and vast agricultural and mineral wealth, the nation's population, arts, and religion flourished. In contrast to elitist Old Kingdom attitudes towards the gods, the Middle Kingdom experienced an increase in expressions of personal piety.
 Middle Kingdom literature featured sophisticated themes and characters written in a confident, eloquent style.
relief and portrait sculpture of the period captured subtle, individual details that reached new heights of technical sophistication.
The last great ruler of the Middle Kingdom,
Amenemhat III, allowed
Canaanite settlers from the
Near East into the delta region to provide a sufficient labour force for his especially active mining and building campaigns. These ambitious building and mining activities, however, combined with severe
Nile floods later in his reign, strained the economy and precipitated the slow decline into the Second Intermediate Period during the later Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties. During this decline, the
Canaanite settlers began to seize control of the delta region, eventually coming to power in Egypt as the
Second Intermediate Period (1674–1549 BC) and the Hyksos
The maximum territorial extent of ancient Egypt (15th century BC)
Around 1785 BC, as the power of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs weakened, a
Western Asian people called the
Hyksos had already settled in the Eastern Delta town of
Avaris, seized control of Egypt, and forced the central government to retreat to Thebes. The pharaoh was treated as a vassal and expected to pay tribute.
 The Hyksos ("foreign rulers") retained Egyptian models of government and identified as pharaohs, thus integrating Egyptian elements into their culture. They and other invaders introduced new tools of warfare into Egypt, most notably the
composite bow and the horse-drawn
After their retreat, the native Theban kings found themselves trapped between the Canaanite Hyksos ruling the north and the Hyksos'
Nubian allies, the
Kushites, to the south of Egypt. After years of vassalage, Thebes gathered enough strength to challenge the Hyksos in a conflict that lasted more than 30 years, until 1555 BC.
 The pharaohs
Seqenenre Tao II and
Kamose were ultimately able to defeat the
Nubians to the south of Egypt, but failed to defeat the Hyksos. That task fell to Kamose's successor,
Ahmose I, who successfully waged a series of campaigns that permanently eradicated the Hyksos' presence in Egypt. He established a new dynasty. In the New Kingdom that followed, the military became a central priority for the pharaohs seeking to expand Egypt's borders and attempting to gain mastery of the
New Kingdom (1549–1069 BC)
The New Kingdom pharaohs established a period of unprecedented prosperity by securing their borders and strengthening diplomatic ties with their neighbours, including the
Canaan. Military campaigns waged under
Tuthmosis I and his grandson
Tuthmosis III extended the influence of the pharaohs to the largest empire Egypt had ever seen. Between their reigns,
Hatshepsut, a queen who established herself as pharaoh, launched mny building projects, including restoration of temples damaged by the Hyksos, and sent trading expenditions to
Punt and the Sinai.
 When Tuthmosis III died in 1425 BC, Egypt had an empire extending from
Niya in north west
Syria to the
Fourth Cataract of the Nile in
Nubia, cementing loyalties and opening access to critical imports such as
The New Kingdom pharaohs began a large-scale building campaign to promote the god
Amun, whose growing cult was based in
Karnak. They also constructed monuments to glorify their own achievements, both real and imagined. The Karnak temple is the largest Egyptian temple ever built.
Around 1350 BC, the stability of the New Kingdom was threatened when Amenhotep IV ascended the throne and instituted a series of radical and chaotic reforms. Changing his name to
Akhenaten, he touted the previously obscure
Aten as the
supreme deity, suppressed the worship of most other deities, and moved the capital to the new city of Akhetaten (modern-day
 He was devoted to his new religion and artistic style. After his death, the cult of the Aten was quickly abandoned and the traditional religious order restored. The subsequent pharaohs,
Horemheb, worked to erase all mention of Akhenaten's heresy, now known as the
Around 1279 BC,
Ramesses II, also known as Ramesses the Great, ascended the throne, and went on to build more temples, erect more statues and obelisks, and sire more children than any other pharaoh in history.
 A bold military leader, Ramesses II led his army against the
Hittites in the
Battle of Kadesh (in modern
Syria) and, after fighting to a stalemate, finally agreed to the first recorded peace treaty, around 1258 BC.
Egypt's wealth, however, made it a tempting target for invasion, particularly by the
Berbers to the west, and the
Sea Peoples, a conjectured
 confederation of seafarers from the
Aegean Sea. Initially, the military was able to repel these invasions, but Egypt eventually lost control of its remaining territories in southern
Canaan, much of it falling to the Assyrians. The effects of external threats were exacerbated by internal problems such as corruption, tomb robbery, and civil unrest. After regaining their power, the high priests at the
temple of Amun in Thebes accumulated vast tracts of land and wealth, and their expanded power splintered the country during the Third Intermediate Period.
Third Intermediate Period (1069–653 BC)
Following the death of
Ramesses XI in 1078 BC,
Smendes assumed authority over the northern part of Egypt, ruling from the city of
Tanis. The south was effectively controlled by the
High Priests of Amun at Thebes, who recognized Smendes in name only.
 During this time, Libyans had been settling in the western delta, and chieftains of these settlers began increasing their autonomy. Libyan princes took control of the delta under
Shoshenq I in 945 BC, founding the so-called Libyan or Bubastite dynasty that would rule for some 200 years. Shoshenq also gained control of southern Egypt by placing his family members in important priestly positions. Libyan control began to erode as a rival dynasty in the delta arose in
Kushites threatened from the south. Around 727 BC the Kushite king
Piye invaded northward, seizing control of Thebes and eventually the Delta.
Egypt's far-reaching prestige declined considerably toward the end of the Third Intermediate Period. Its foreign allies had fallen under the
Assyrian sphere of influence, and by 700 BC war between the two states became inevitable. Between 671 and 667 BC the Assyrians began their attack on Egypt. The reigns of both
Taharqa and his successor,
Tanutamun, were filled with constant conflict with the Assyrians, against whom Egypt enjoyed several victories. Ultimately, the Assyrians pushed the Kushites back into Nubia, occupied Memphis, and sacked the temples of Thebes.
Late Period (672–332 BC)
The Assyrians left control of Egypt to a series of vassals who became known as the Saite kings of the
Twenty-Sixth Dynasty. By 653 BC, the Saite king
Psamtik I was able to oust the Assyrians with the help of Greek mercenaries, who were recruited to form Egypt's first navy. Greek influence expanded greatly as the city of
Naukratis became the home of Greeks in the delta. The Saite kings based in the new capital of Sais witnessed a brief but spirited resurgence in the economy and culture, but in 525 BC, the powerful Persians, led by
Cambyses II, began their conquest of Egypt, eventually capturing the pharaoh
Psamtik III at the battle of
Pelusium. Cambyses II then assumed the formal title of pharaoh, but ruled Egypt from Iran, leaving Egypt under the control of a satrapy. A few successful revolts against the Persians marked the 5th century BC, but Egypt was never able to permanently overthrow the Persians.
Following its annexation by Persia, Egypt was joined with
Phoenicia in the sixth
satrapy of the
Achaemenid Persian Empire. This first period of Persian rule over Egypt, also known as the Twenty-Seventh dynasty, ended in 402 BC, when Egypt regained independence under a series of native dynasties. The last of these dynasties, the
Thirtieth, proved to be the last native royal house of ancient Egypt, ending with the kingship of
Nectanebo II. A brief restoration of Persian rule, sometimes known as the
Thirty-First Dynasty, began in 343 BC, but shortly after, in 332 BC, the Persian ruler Mazaces handed Egypt over to
Alexander the Great without a fight.
Ptolemaic period (332–30 BC)
In 332 BC,
Alexander the Great conquered Egypt with little resistance from the
Persians and was welcomed by the Egyptians as a deliverer. The administration established by Alexander's successors, the
Ptolemaic Kingdom, was based on an Egyptian model and based in the new
capital city of
Alexandria. The city showcased the power and prestige of Hellenistic rule, and became a
seat of learning and culture, centered at the famous
Library of Alexandria.
Lighthouse of Alexandria lit the way for the many ships that kept trade flowing through the city—as the Ptolemies made commerce and revenue-generating enterprises, such as papyrus manufacturing, their top priority.
Hellenistic culture did not supplant native Egyptian culture, as the Ptolemies supported time-honored traditions in an effort to secure the loyalty of the populace. They built new temples in Egyptian style, supported traditional cults, and portrayed themselves as pharaohs. Some traditions merged, as Greek and
Egyptian gods were
syncretized into composite deities, such as
classical Greek forms of sculpture influenced traditional Egyptian motifs. Despite their efforts to appease the Egyptians, the Ptolemies were challenged by native rebellion, bitter family rivalries, and the powerful mob of Alexandria that formed after the death of
 In addition, as
Rome relied more heavily on imports of grain from Egypt, the
Romans took great interest in the political situation in the country. Continued Egyptian revolts, ambitious politicians, and powerful opponents from the
Near East made this situation unstable, leading Rome to send forces to secure the country as a province of its empire.
Roman period (30 BC–641 AD)
Egypt became a province of the
Roman Empire in 30 BC, following the defeat of
Marc Antony and
Cleopatra VII by
Emperor Augustus) in the
Battle of Actium. The Romans relied heavily on grain shipments from Egypt, and the
Roman army, under the control of a prefect appointed by the Emperor, quelled rebellions, strictly enforced the collection of heavy taxes, and prevented attacks by bandits, which had become a notorious problem during the period.
 Alexandria became an increasingly important center on the trade route with the orient, as exotic luxuries were in high demand in Rome.
Although the Romans had a more hostile attitude than the Greeks towards the Egyptians, some traditions such as mummification and worship of the traditional gods continued.
 The art of mummy portraiture flourished, and some Roman emperors had themselves depicted as pharaohs, though not to the extent that the Ptolemies had. The former lived outside Egypt and did not perform the ceremonial functions of Egyptian kingship. Local administration became Roman in style and closed to native Egyptians.
From the mid-first century AD,
Christianity took root in Egypt and it was originally seen as another cult that could be accepted. However, it was an uncompromising religion that sought to win converts from
Egyptian Religion and
Greco-Roman religion and threatened popular religious traditions. This led to the persecution of converts to Christianity, culminating in the great purges of
Diocletian starting in 303, but eventually Christianity won out.
 In 391 the Christian Emperor
Theodosius introduced legislation that banned pagan rites and closed temples.
 Alexandria became the scene of great anti-pagan riots with public and private religious imagery destroyed.
 As a consequence, Egypt's native religious culture was continually in decline. While the native population certainly continued to speak
their language, the ability to read
hieroglyphic writing slowly disappeared as the role of the Egyptian temple priests and priestesses diminished. The temples themselves were sometimes converted to
churches or abandoned to the desert.
In the fourth century, as the Roman Empire divided, Egypt found itself in the Eastern Empire with its capital at Constantinople. In the waning years of the Empire, Egypt fell to the
Sassanid Persian army (618–628 AD), was recaptured by the Roman Emperor
Heraclius (629–639 AD), and then was finally captured by
Muslim Rashidun army in 639–641 AD, ending Roman rule.