Anarchism is an anti-authoritarian political philosophy[1] that rejects hierarchies deemed unjust and advocates their replacement with self-managed, self-governed societies based on voluntary, cooperative institutions. These institutions are often described as stateless societies,[2] although several authors have defined them more specifically as distinct institutions based on non-hierarchical or free associations.[3] Anarchism's central disagreement with other ideologies is that it holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful.[4]

Anarchism is usually placed on the far-left of the political spectrum,[5] and much of its economics and legal philosophy reflect anti-authoritarian interpretations of communism, collectivism, syndicalism, mutualism, or participatory economics.[6] As anarchism does not offer a fixed body of doctrine from a single particular worldview,[7] many anarchist types and traditions exist and varieties of anarchy diverge widely.[8] Anarchist schools of thought can differ fundamentally, supporting anything from extreme individualism to complete collectivism.[9] Strains of anarchism have often been divided into the categories of social and individualist anarchism, or similar dual classifications.[10]

Etymology, terminology and definition

The etymological origin of anarchism derives from ancient Greek word anarkhia. Anarkhia meant "without a ruler" as it was composed by the prefix a (i.e. "without") and the word arkhos (i.e. leader or ruler). The suffix -ism is used to denote the ideological current that favours anarchism.[11] The first known use of this word was in 1642.[12] Various factions within the French Revolution labelled opponents as anarchists although few shared many views of later anarchists. There would be many revolutionaries of the early 19th century who contributed to the anarchist doctrines of the next generation, such as William Godwin and Wilhelm Weitling, but they did not use the word anarchist or anarchism in describing themselves or their beliefs.[13]

The first political philosopher to call himself an anarchist was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, marking the formal birth of anarchism in the mid-19th century. Since the 1890s and beginning in France,[14] the term libertarianism has often been used as a synonym for anarchism[15] and its use as a synonym is still common outside the United States.[16] On the other hand, some use libertarianism to refer to individualistic free-market philosophy only, referring to free-market anarchism as libertarian anarchism.[17]

While opposition to the state is central, defining anarchism is not an easy task as there is a lot of talk among scholars and anarchists on the matter and various currents perceive anarchism slightly differently.[18] Hence, it might be true to say that anarchism is a cluster of political philosophies opposing authority and hierarchical organization (including the state, capitalism, nationalism and all associated institutions) in the conduct of all human relations in favour of a society based on voluntary association, freedom and decentralisation, but this definition has the same shortcomings as the definition based on etymology (which is simply a negation of a ruler), or based on anti-statism (anarchism is much more than that) or even the anti-authoritarian (which is an a posteriori conclusion).[19] Major elements of the definition of anarchism include: a) the will for a non-coercive society; b) the rejection of the state apparatus; c) belief that human nature allows humans to exist in or progress toward such a non-coercive society; and d) a suggestion on how to act to pursue the ideal of anarchy.[20]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Anargisme
Alemannisch: Anarchismus
العربية: لاسلطوية
aragonés: Anarquismo
অসমীয়া: নৈৰাজ্যবাদ
asturianu: Anarquismu
azərbaycanca: Anarxizm
تۆرکجه: آنارشیسم
башҡортса: Анархизм
беларуская: Анархізм
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Анархізм
български: Анархизъм
bosanski: Anarhizam
brezhoneg: Anveliouriezh
буряад: Анархизм
català: Anarquisme
čeština: Anarchismus
Cymraeg: Anarchiaeth
dansk: Anarkisme
Deitsch: Anarchism
Deutsch: Anarchismus
eesti: Anarhism
Ελληνικά: Αναρχισμός
español: Anarquismo
Esperanto: Anarkiismo
estremeñu: Anarquismu
euskara: Anarkismo
فارسی: آنارشیسم
Fiji Hindi: Khalbali
føroyskt: Anarkisma
français: Anarchisme
Frysk: Anargisme
Gaeilge: Ainrialachas
galego: Anarquismo
گیلکی: آنارشيسم
한국어: 아나키즘
հայերեն: Անարխիզմ
हिन्दी: अराजकतावाद
hrvatski: Anarhizam
Ilokano: Anarkismo
Bahasa Indonesia: Anarkisme
interlingua: Anarchismo
italiano: Anarchismo
עברית: אנרכיזם
Jawa: Anarkisme
къарачай-малкъар: Анархизм
ქართული: ანარქიზმი
қазақша: Анархизм
Kiswahili: Utawala huria
Кыргызча: Анархизм
Ladino: Anarkizmo
Latina: Anarchismus
latviešu: Anarhisms
Lëtzebuergesch: Anarchismus
лезги: Анархизм
lietuvių: Anarchizmas
Limburgs: Anarchisme
Lingua Franca Nova: Anarcisme
la .lojban.: nonje'asi'o
magyar: Anarchizmus
македонски: Анархизам
Malagasy: Anarsisma
मराठी: अराजकता
მარგალური: ანარქიზმი
مصرى: اناركيه
مازِرونی: آنارشیسم
Bahasa Melayu: Anarkisme
Mirandés: Anarquismo
монгол: Анархизм
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မင်းမဲ့ဝါဒီ
Nederlands: Anarchisme
日本語: アナキズム
norsk: Anarkisme
norsk nynorsk: Anarkisme
occitan: Anarquisme
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Anarxizm
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਅਰਾਜਕਤਾਵਾਦ
پنجابی: انارکی
Patois: Anaakizam
Piemontèis: Anarchism
polski: Anarchizm
português: Anarquismo
română: Anarhism
русиньскый: Анархізм
русский: Анархизм
саха тыла: Анархизм
Scots: Anarchism
shqip: Anarkizmi
Simple English: Anarchism
slovenčina: Anarchizmus
slovenščina: Anarhizem
کوردی: ئەنارکیزم
српски / srpski: Анархизам
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Anarhizam
suomi: Anarkismi
svenska: Anarkism
Tagalog: Anarkismo
தமிழ்: அரசின்மை
татарча/tatarça: Анархизм
тоҷикӣ: Анархизм
Türkçe: Anarşizm
українська: Анархізм
اردو: نراج
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئانارخىزم
Vahcuengh: Vuzcwngfujcujyi
vèneto: Anarchismo
Võro: Anarkism
Winaray: Anarkismo
ייִדיש: אנארכיזם
Zazaki: Anarşizm
žemaitėška: Anarkėzmos