American football

American football
Larry Fitzgerald catches TD at 2009 Pro Bowl.jpg
Larry Fitzgerald (in blue) catches a pass while Cortland Finnegan (in red) plays defense at the 2009 Pro Bowl.
Highest governing bodyInternational Federation of American Football
First playedNovember 6, 1869
New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
(Princeton vs. Rutgers)
Team members11 (both teams may freely substitute players between downs)
VenueFootball field (rectangular: 120 yards long, 53 1/3 yards wide)
GlossaryGlossary of American football
Country or regionWorldwide
OlympicNo (demonstrated at the 1932 Summer Olympics)[1]
World GamesYes (invitational sport at 2005 and 2017 Games).

American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron,[nb 1] is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, which is the team with possession of the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, which is the team without possession of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and to take control of the ball for themselves. The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays; if they fail, they turn over the football to the defense, but if they succeed, they are given a new set of four downs to continue the drive. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins.

American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of soccer and rugby. The first match of American football was played on November 6, 1869 between two college teams, Rutgers and Princeton, under rules based on the rules of soccer at the time. A set of rule changes drawn up from 1880 onward by Walter Camp, the "Father of American Football", established the snap, the line of scrimmage, eleven-player teams, and the concept of downs; later rule changes legalized the forward pass, created the neutral zone, and specified the size and shape of the football. The sport is closely related to Canadian football, which evolved parallel and contemporary to the American game, and most of the features that distinguish American football from rugby and soccer are also present in Canadian football. The two sports are considered the primary variants of gridiron football.

American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States. The most popular forms of the game are professional and college football, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually. The National Football League, the most popular American football league, has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world; its championship game, the Super Bowl, ranks among the most-watched club sporting events in the world, and the league has an annual revenue of around US$10 billion. Other leagues exist worldwide, but the sport does not have the international popularity of other American sports like baseball or basketball.

Etymology and names

In the United States, American football is referred to as "football".[4] The term "football" was officially established in the rulebook for the 1876 college football season, when the sport first shifted from soccer-style rules to rugby-style rules; although it could easily have been called "rugby" at this point, Harvard, one of the primary proponents of the rugby-style game, compromised and did not request the name of the sport be changed to "rugby".[5] The terms "gridiron" or "American football" are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand, and Australia.[6][7]

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Amerika futbolu
Bân-lâm-gú: Bí-kok-sek kha-kiû
башҡортса: Америка футболы
čeština: Americký fotbal
Deitsch: Footballe
Fiji Hindi: American football
한국어: 미식축구
Bahasa Indonesia: Sepak bola Amerika
עברית: פוטבול
Bahasa Melayu: Bola sepak Amerika
Nederlands: American football
नेपाल भाषा: अमेरिकन फुटबल
norsk nynorsk: Amerikansk fotball
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Amerika futboli
português: Futebol americano
română: Fotbal american
Simple English: American football
slovenčina: Americký futbal
slovenščina: Ameriški nogomet
српски / srpski: Амерички фудбал
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Američki fudbal
Tiếng Việt: Bóng bầu dục Mỹ
文言: 美式足球
粵語: 美式足球
中文: 美式足球