Amateur radio

An example of an amateur radio station with four transceivers, amplifiers, and a computer for logging and for digital modes. On the wall are examples of various amateur radio awards, certificates, and a reception report card (QSL card) from a foreign amateur station.

Amateur radio, also known as ham radio, describes the use of radio frequency spectrum for purposes of non-commercial exchange of messages, wireless experimentation, self-training, private recreation, radiosport, contesting, and emergency communication. The term "amateur" is used to specify "a duly authorised person interested in radioelectric practice with a purely personal aim and without pecuniary interest;"[1] (either direct monetary or other similar reward) and to differentiate it from commercial broadcasting, public safety (such as police and fire), or professional two-way radio services (such as maritime, aviation, taxis, etc.).

The amateur radio service (amateur service and amateur-satellite service) is established by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) through the Radio Regulations. National governments regulate technical and operational characteristics of transmissions and issue individual stations licenses with an identifying call sign. Prospective amateur operators are tested for their understanding of key concepts in electronics and the host government's radio regulations.

Radio amateurs use a variety of voice, text, image, and data communications modes and have access to frequency allocations throughout the RF spectrum. This enables communication across a city, region, country, continent, the world, or even into space. In many countries, amateur radio operators may also send, receive, or relay radio communications between computers or transceivers connected to secure virtual private networks on the Internet.

Amateur radio is officially represented and coordinated by the International Amateur Radio Union (IARU), which is organized in three regions and has as its members the national amateur radio societies which exist in most countries.According to an estimate made in 2011 by the American Radio Relay League, two million people throughout the world are regularly involved with amateur radio.[2] About 830,000 amateur radio stations are located in IARU Region 2 (the Americas) followed by IARU Region 3 (South and East Asia and the Pacific Ocean) with about 750,000 stations. A significantly smaller number, about 400,000, are located in IARU Region 1 (Europe, Middle East, CIS, Africa).

History

An amateur radio station in the United Kingdom. Multiple transceivers are employed for different bands and modes. Computers are used for control, datamodes, SDR and logging.

The origins of amateur radio can be traced to the late 19th century, but amateur radio as practiced today began in the early 20th century. The First Annual Official Wireless Blue Book of the Wireless Association of America, produced in 1909, contains a list of amateur radio stations.[3] This radio callbook lists wireless telegraph stations in Canada and the United States, including 89 amateur radio stations. As with radio in general, amateur radio was associated with various amateur experimenters and hobbyists. Amateur radio enthusiasts have significantly contributed to science, engineering, industry, and social services. Research by amateur operators has founded new industries,[4] built economies,[5] empowered nations,[6] and saved lives in times of emergency.[7][8] Ham radio can also be used in the classroom to teach English, map skills, geography, math, science, and computer skills.[9]

Ham radio

The term "ham" was first a pejorative term used in professional wired telegraphy during the 19th century, to mock operators with poor Morse code sending skills ("ham-fisted").[10][11][12][13] This term continued to be used after the invention of radio and the proliferation of amateur experimentation with wireless telegraphy; among land- and sea-based professional radio operators, "ham" amateurs were considered a nuisance. The use of "ham" meaning "amateurish or unskilled" survives today in other disciplines ("ham actor").

The amateur radio community subsequently began to reclaim the word as a label of pride,[14] and by the mid-20th century it had lost its pejorative meaning. Although not an acronym, it is often mistakenly written as "HAM" in capital letters.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Amateurradio
asturianu: Radioafición
català: Radioafició
español: Radioafición
Esperanto: Amatora radio
hrvatski: Radioamaterizam
Bahasa Indonesia: Radio amatir
interlingua: Radio amateur
italiano: Radiantismo
latviešu: Radioamatierisms
മലയാളം: ഹാം റേഡിയോ
norsk nynorsk: Amatørradio
português: Radioamadorismo
Simple English: Amateur radio
slovenčina: Rádioamatérstvo
slovenščina: Radioamaterstvo
српски / srpski: Радио-аматеризам
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Radio-amaterizam
svenska: Amatörradio
Türkçe: Amatör radyo