Allied-occupied Germany

German Reich

Deutsches Reich
1945–1949
Flag of Germany#After World War II (1945–49)
The C-Pennant
Post-Nazi German occupation borders and territories from 1945 to 1949. British (green), French (blue), American (orange) and Soviet (red) occupation zones. Saar Protectorate (light blue) in the west under the control of France. Berlin is the quadripartite area shown within the red Soviet zone. Bremen consists of the two orange American exclaves in the British sector.
Post-Nazi German occupation borders and territories from 1945 to 1949.
British (green), French (blue), American (orange) and Soviet (red) occupation zones. Saar Protectorate (light blue) in the west under the control of France.
Berlin is the quadripartite area shown within the red Soviet zone. Bremen consists of the two orange American exclaves in the British sector.
StatusMilitary occupation
Capital
Common languages
Governors (1945) 
• British zone
F. Mar. Montgomery
• French zone
Gen. Lattre de Tassigny
• US zone
Gen. Eisenhower
Marshal G. K. Zhukov
Historical eraCold War
• Surrender
8 May 1945
5 July 1945
15 December 1947
23 May 1949
7 October 1949
12 September 1990
Population
• 1945
64,260,000
• 1949
68,080,000
Currency
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Nazi Germany
West Germany
East Germany
Saar Protectorate
West Berlin
Today part of Germany
  1. Joined the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) on 1 January 1957.
  2. Reunited Germany by joining the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990.
  3. German reunification took place on 3 October 1990.
  4. The western Allied zones of Germany and the western sectors of Berlin.
  5. The Soviet zone of Germany and sector of Berlin.
Map of occupied Berlin
The four sectors of the Allied occupation of Berlin and exclaves.

Upon the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the victorious Allies asserted their joint authority and sovereignty over 'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich which lay west of the Oder–Neisse line, having declared the destruction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler (see 1945 Berlin Declaration). The four powers divided 'Germany as a whole' into four occupation zones for administrative purposes, under the United States, United Kingdom, France and the Soviet Union respectively; creating what became collectively known as Allied-occupied Germany (German: Alliierten-besetztes Deutschland). This division was ratified at the Potsdam Conference (17 July to 2 August 1945).[not verified in body] The four zones were as agreed in February 1945 by the United States, United Kingdom and Soviet Union meeting at the Yalta Conference; setting aside an earlier division into three zones (excluding France) proposed by the London Protocol.

At Potsdam, the United States, United Kingdom and the Soviet Union approved the detachment from 'Germany as a whole' of the German eastern territories east of the Oder–Neisse line; with the exact line of the boundary to be determined at a final German Peace Treaty. This treaty was expected to confirm the "shifting westward" of Poland's borders, as the United Kingdom and the United States committed themselves to support in any future peace treaty the permanent incorporation of former eastern German territories into Poland and the Soviet Union. From March 1945 to July 1945, these former eastern territories of Germany had been administered under Soviet military occupation authorities, but following the Potsdam Conference they were handed over to Soviet and Polish civilian administrations and ceased to constitute part of Allied-occupied Germany.

In the closing weeks of fighting in Europe, United States forces had pushed beyond the agreed boundaries for the future zones of occupation, in some places by as much as 320 km (200 miles). The so-called line of contact between Soviet and American forces at the end of hostilities, mostly lying eastward of the July 1945-established inner German border, was temporary. After two months in which they had held areas that had been assigned to the Soviet zone, U.S. forces withdrew in the first days of July 1945.[1] Some have concluded that this was a crucial move that persuaded the Soviet Union to allow American, British and French forces into their designated sectors in Berlin, which occurred at roughly the same time (July 1945), although the need for intelligence gathering (see Operation Paperclip) may also have been a factor.[2]

Territories annexed by Germany (1938–1945)

All territories annexed by Germany before the war from Austria and Czechoslovakia were returned to these countries. The Memel Territory, annexed by Germany from Lithuania before the war, was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1945 and transferred to the Lithuanian SSR. All territories annexed by Germany during the war from Belgium, France, Luxembourg, Poland and Yugoslavia were returned to their respective countries.

Other Languages
Lingua Franca Nova: Divide de Deutxland
Simple English: Allied-occupied Germany