Ali al-Ridha

Ali ar-Rida
8th Imam of Twelver Shia Islam
Imam reza-224009.jpg
Native name علي الرضا
Born c. (766-01-01)1 January 766 CE [1]
(11 Dhu al-Qa'dah 148 AH) August 5, 766 CE
Medina, Hijaz, Abbasid Empire (now Saudi Arabia)
Died c. 26 May 818(818-05-26) (aged 53)
(30 Safar 203 AH)
or 23 Dhu al-Qa'dah 203 AH
Tus, Persia, Abbasid Empire (Now Iran)
Cause of death Poisoning by Al-Ma'mun according to most Shi'a Muslims
Resting place Imam Reza shrine, Iran
36°17′13″N 59°36′56″E / 36°17′13″N 59°36′56″E / 36.28694; 59.61556
Other names Alī 'ibn Mūsā
Term 799–819 CE
Predecessor Musa al-Kadhim
Successor Muhammad al-Jawad
Spouse(s) Sabīkah aka Khayzurān [2]
Parent(s) Musa al-Kadhim
Ummul Banīn Najmah [2]

‘Alī ibn Mūsā ar-Riḍā ( Arabic: علي ابن موسى الرّضا‎‎), also called Abu al-Hasan, Ali al-Reza (c. 29 December 765 – 23 August 818) [2] or in Persia ( Iran) as Imam Reza ( Persian: امام رضا), was a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad and the eighth Shi'ite Imam, after his father Musa al-Kadhim, and before his son Muhammad al-Jawad. He was an Imam of knowledge according to the Zaydi (Fiver) Shia school and Sufis. He lived in a period when Abbasid caliphs were facing numerous difficulties, the most important of which was Shia revolts. The Caliph Al-Ma'mun sought out a remedy for this problem by appointing Al-Ridha as his successor, through whom he could be involved in worldly affairs. However, according to the Shia view, when Al-Ma'mun saw that the Imam gained even more popularity, he decided to correct his mistake by poisoning him. The Imam was buried in a village in Khorasan, which afterwards gained the name Mashhad, meaning the place of martyrdom. [4] [5]

The Tomb of Imam Reza at Mashhad is the largest Islamic holy site and one of the most visited holy sites in Islam


Birth and family life

On the eleventh of Dhu al-Qi'dah, 148 AH (December 29, 765 CE), a son was born in the house of Imam Musa al-Kadhim (the seventh Imam of Twelver Shia Islam) in Medina. He was named Ali and titled al-Ridha, literally meaning in Arabic, "the contented", since it was believed that Allah was contented with him. His kunya (alternative name) was Abu'l Hasan, since he was the father of al-Hasan; the naming of a father after his son being a common practice in Arab culture. However, in the Shia sources he is commonly called Abu’l-Ḥasan al-Ṯānī (the second Abu'l Hasan), since his father, Musa al-Kadhim, was also Abu'l Hasan (he was known as Abu’l-Ḥasan al-Awwal, meaning the first Abu'l Hasan). In keeping with his very high status amongst Shi'a, he has been given other honorific titles since, such as Saber, Vafi, Razi, Zakki amd Vali [7]

Ali was born one month after the death of his grandfather, Ja'far as-Sādiq, and brought up in Medina under the direction of his father. [8] His mother, Najmah, was also a distinguished and pious lady. It is said that the boy al-Ridha required a great deal of milk, so that when his mother was asked whether her milk was sufficient, she answered, "it is not because my milk is not sufficient, but he wants it all the time, and consequently I am falling short in my prayers." [5] She was originally a Nubian woman, She was purchased and freed by Bibi Hamidah Khatun, the wife of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, who was also a Um Walad of Nubian origin. Imam Ali ibn Musa was said to be shadid udmah or aswad meaning he was very dark skinned or black complexion [9]. Bibi Hamidah was a notable Islamic scholar. [10]

Disputes exist regarding the number of his offspring and their names. A group of scholars(Sunni) say that they were five sons and one daughter, and that they were: Muhammad al- Qani', al-Hasan, Ja’far, Ibrahim, al-Husayn, and 'Ayesha. Sabt ibn al-Jawzi, in his work Tadhkiratul-Khawass(" تذکرۃ الخواص-Introduced eminence of the heirs of Muhammad The Prophet of Islam), says that the sons were only four, dropping the name of Husayn from the list. [11]

Other Languages
العربية: علي الرضا
azərbaycanca: Rza
català: Alí ar-Ridà
Cymraeg: Ali al-Rida
español: Ali ibn Musa
Esperanto: Imamo Reza
français: Ali ar-Rida
Bahasa Indonesia: Ali ar-Ridha
italiano: Ali al-Rida
עברית: עלי א-רידא
مازِرونی: علی بن موسی رضا
Bahasa Melayu: Ali ar-Ridha
Nederlands: Ali ar-Rida
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Ali Ar-Rizo
română: Ali al-Ridha
русский: Али ар-Рида
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Ali ar-Riza
svenska: Imam Reza
Türkçe: Ali er-Rızâ
українська: Алі ібн Муса
اردو: علی رضا
Zazaki: Eli Rıza